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Preschool (Pt 1)
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Preschool (Pt 1)

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Physiological growth in preschool years.

Physiological growth in preschool years.

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  • 1. Preschool (Part 1)
  • 2. Physical Growth
    • Individual Differences
    • Average differences in height & weight between boys & girls begins to increase
    • Boys start becoming taller
    • Differences in economically deprived countries v. developed countries
    • Better nutrition & health care
    • Difference in U.S. between advantaged & disadvantaged children
  • 3. Growth of the Brain
    • Fastest Growing Part of the Body
    • By age 5, the brain is 90% of adult size
    • Increase in growth due to increase in the number of interconnections
    • It allows for more complex communications between neurons
    • Increase in the amount of myelin
    • Increase in the size of the corpus callosum
  • 4. Brain Lateralization
    • Each Hemisphere has Certain Functions
    • Each hemisphere processes information slightly differently
    • The left processes sequentially
    • The right processes holistically
  • 5. Boy Brain / Girl Brain
    • Male & Female Brains are Predisposed to Function Slightly Differently
    • Girls & Boys Show Some Hemispheric Differences
    • Gender & Cultural Relations to Brain Structure
    • Some Cultures Process Information Related to Vocal Sounds Differently
    • Increases in Myelin May Be Related to Growing Cognitive Capacities as well as Memory Improvements
    • Boys & Girls have Differences in Lower Body Reflexes
    • Boys & Girls Process Auditory Information Differently
    • Boys show greater Specialization of Left Hemisphere Language
    • Girls Language Capabilities is More Evenly Distributed Between Hemispheres
    • Girls Language Development is Faster than Boys
  • 6. Sensory Development
    • Brain Development Brings Changes
    • By preschool, a gradual shift in the way objects are viewed
    • Can see parts instead of the whole
    • Until 3 or 4 years, preschoolers focus on the insides of 2-D objects instead of the internal details
    • By 4 or 5 they’re looking at the surrounding boundaries
    • Auditory acuity improves
  • 7. Sleep
    • Problems in Sleep
    • 20% - 30% have difficulty getting to sleep
    • May wake up & call parents for comfort
    • 10% - 50% have nightmares
    • Repeated nightmares can cause anxiety even in the waking hours
    • 1% - 5% have night terrors
    • Waking in a state of panic with no nightmare
    • Not easily comforted
    • Can’t recall in the morning
  • 8. Nutrition
    • Eating the Right Foods
    • Growth rate is slower than in infancy
    • Need less food to maintain growth
    • Encouraging the child to eat more than they seem to want can lead to obesity (more than 20% above average weight for height)
    • Childhood obesity increased significantly since the mid-1980s
  • 9. Minor Illnesses
    • Preschooler’s Illnesses
    • Average preschooler age 3 to 5 has 7 – 10 colds & other minor respiratory illnesses per year
    • Build up an immunity to more severe illnesses
    • Learns to cope with illnesses later
    • Learn to understand others’ illnesses
  • 10. Major Illnesses
    • Cancer & AIDS
    • Cancer is most frequent major illness: Leukemia
    • AIDS causes social problems due to avoidance
    • Emotional Illnesses
    • Increasing number of children are being treated with drugs: antidepressants & stimulants
    • Possibly due to wanting a quick fix
  • 11. Injuries
    • Accidents are the Greatest Risk
    • Due to level of physical activity
    • Boys are more active than girls & take more risks
    • More accidents in poorer areas
    • Lead Poisoning
    • Tiny amounts of lead can be very harmful
    • Linked to lower IQ, verbal & auditory problems, hyperactivity & distractibility
  • 12. Child Abuse
    • Physical Abuse
    • 1800+ killed every year
    • 140,000+ injured
    • 3 million + are victims
    • Characteristics
    • Fussy, resistant to control, not readily adaptable to new situations
    • The children have more headaches & stomachaches, bedwetting, anxiety, & have developmental delays
  • 13. Child Abuse
    • Reasons
    • Vague separation between permissible & impermissible forms of physical punishment
    • Privacy of childcare in Western society
    • Unrealistic expectations of the child’s abilities & failing to meet them
    • Cycle of abuse hypothesis: Abused & neglected children become abusing adults
    • Not always true
    • Psychological Abuse
    • Psychological maltreatment: When parents harm a child’s behavioral, cognitive, or physical functioning via overt behavior or neglect
    • The consequences are low self-esteem, lying, misbehavior, underachievement, & criminal behavior
    • Causes permanent changes in the brain: reduces the size of the amygdala & hippocampus; can lead to overexcitation of the limbic system leading to emotional regulation & memory problems
  • 14. Overcoming the Odds
    • Resilience
    • The ability to overcome circumstances that place a child at high risk for psychological or physical damage
    • Temperament:
    • Affectionate, easy-going, & good natured, he or she elicits nurturance from others
    • In older children they are socially pleasant, outgoing, independent, relatively intelligent, feel they shape their future, & have good communication skills
  • 15. Motor Development
    • Gross Motor Skills
    • Advances in gross motor skills related to brain development & myelination of neurons in areas related to balance & coordination
    • Gender Differences
    • Boys overall motor activity level higher than girls: jump higher & throw a ball better
    • Girls better in coordination of arms & legs & balancing & coordinated exercises
    • Fine Motor Skills
    • Develop with gross motor skills but require practice
  • 16. Toilet Training
    • Readiness
    • The flexible approach:
    • Wait until the child shows signs of readiness
    • Signs include:
    • Staying dry for at least 2 hours or waking up dry after a nap; saying he or she has to go; the ability to follow simple directions; the ability to get to the bathroom & undress alone; discomfort with soiled diapers; asking to use the toilet or potty chair; the desire to wear underwear
  • 17. Handedness
    • Preference by the End of Preschool
    • By age 5 there’s a clear tendency to use one hand over the other
    • Today children are not forced to use the right hand
  • 18. Art
    • Art is Important in Developing Fine Motor Skills
    • Children’s art proceeds through 3 stages:
    • Scribbling
    • Shape
    • Pictoral