Preschool (Pt 1)
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Preschool (Pt 1)

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Physiological growth in preschool years.

Physiological growth in preschool years.

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    Preschool (Pt 1) Preschool (Pt 1) Presentation Transcript

    • Preschool (Part 1)
    • Physical Growth
      • Individual Differences
      • Average differences in height & weight between boys & girls begins to increase
      • Boys start becoming taller
      • Differences in economically deprived countries v. developed countries
      • Better nutrition & health care
      • Difference in U.S. between advantaged & disadvantaged children
    • Growth of the Brain
      • Fastest Growing Part of the Body
      • By age 5, the brain is 90% of adult size
      • Increase in growth due to increase in the number of interconnections
      • It allows for more complex communications between neurons
      • Increase in the amount of myelin
      • Increase in the size of the corpus callosum
    • Brain Lateralization
      • Each Hemisphere has Certain Functions
      • Each hemisphere processes information slightly differently
      • The left processes sequentially
      • The right processes holistically
    • Boy Brain / Girl Brain
      • Male & Female Brains are Predisposed to Function Slightly Differently
      • Girls & Boys Show Some Hemispheric Differences
      • Gender & Cultural Relations to Brain Structure
      • Some Cultures Process Information Related to Vocal Sounds Differently
      • Increases in Myelin May Be Related to Growing Cognitive Capacities as well as Memory Improvements
      • Boys & Girls have Differences in Lower Body Reflexes
      • Boys & Girls Process Auditory Information Differently
      • Boys show greater Specialization of Left Hemisphere Language
      • Girls Language Capabilities is More Evenly Distributed Between Hemispheres
      • Girls Language Development is Faster than Boys
    • Sensory Development
      • Brain Development Brings Changes
      • By preschool, a gradual shift in the way objects are viewed
      • Can see parts instead of the whole
      • Until 3 or 4 years, preschoolers focus on the insides of 2-D objects instead of the internal details
      • By 4 or 5 they’re looking at the surrounding boundaries
      • Auditory acuity improves
    • Sleep
      • Problems in Sleep
      • 20% - 30% have difficulty getting to sleep
      • May wake up & call parents for comfort
      • 10% - 50% have nightmares
      • Repeated nightmares can cause anxiety even in the waking hours
      • 1% - 5% have night terrors
      • Waking in a state of panic with no nightmare
      • Not easily comforted
      • Can’t recall in the morning
    • Nutrition
      • Eating the Right Foods
      • Growth rate is slower than in infancy
      • Need less food to maintain growth
      • Encouraging the child to eat more than they seem to want can lead to obesity (more than 20% above average weight for height)
      • Childhood obesity increased significantly since the mid-1980s
    • Minor Illnesses
      • Preschooler’s Illnesses
      • Average preschooler age 3 to 5 has 7 – 10 colds & other minor respiratory illnesses per year
      • Build up an immunity to more severe illnesses
      • Learns to cope with illnesses later
      • Learn to understand others’ illnesses
    • Major Illnesses
      • Cancer & AIDS
      • Cancer is most frequent major illness: Leukemia
      • AIDS causes social problems due to avoidance
      • Emotional Illnesses
      • Increasing number of children are being treated with drugs: antidepressants & stimulants
      • Possibly due to wanting a quick fix
    • Injuries
      • Accidents are the Greatest Risk
      • Due to level of physical activity
      • Boys are more active than girls & take more risks
      • More accidents in poorer areas
      • Lead Poisoning
      • Tiny amounts of lead can be very harmful
      • Linked to lower IQ, verbal & auditory problems, hyperactivity & distractibility
    • Child Abuse
      • Physical Abuse
      • 1800+ killed every year
      • 140,000+ injured
      • 3 million + are victims
      • Characteristics
      • Fussy, resistant to control, not readily adaptable to new situations
      • The children have more headaches & stomachaches, bedwetting, anxiety, & have developmental delays
    • Child Abuse
      • Reasons
      • Vague separation between permissible & impermissible forms of physical punishment
      • Privacy of childcare in Western society
      • Unrealistic expectations of the child’s abilities & failing to meet them
      • Cycle of abuse hypothesis: Abused & neglected children become abusing adults
      • Not always true
      • Psychological Abuse
      • Psychological maltreatment: When parents harm a child’s behavioral, cognitive, or physical functioning via overt behavior or neglect
      • The consequences are low self-esteem, lying, misbehavior, underachievement, & criminal behavior
      • Causes permanent changes in the brain: reduces the size of the amygdala & hippocampus; can lead to overexcitation of the limbic system leading to emotional regulation & memory problems
    • Overcoming the Odds
      • Resilience
      • The ability to overcome circumstances that place a child at high risk for psychological or physical damage
      • Temperament:
      • Affectionate, easy-going, & good natured, he or she elicits nurturance from others
      • In older children they are socially pleasant, outgoing, independent, relatively intelligent, feel they shape their future, & have good communication skills
    • Motor Development
      • Gross Motor Skills
      • Advances in gross motor skills related to brain development & myelination of neurons in areas related to balance & coordination
      • Gender Differences
      • Boys overall motor activity level higher than girls: jump higher & throw a ball better
      • Girls better in coordination of arms & legs & balancing & coordinated exercises
      • Fine Motor Skills
      • Develop with gross motor skills but require practice
    • Toilet Training
      • Readiness
      • The flexible approach:
      • Wait until the child shows signs of readiness
      • Signs include:
      • Staying dry for at least 2 hours or waking up dry after a nap; saying he or she has to go; the ability to follow simple directions; the ability to get to the bathroom & undress alone; discomfort with soiled diapers; asking to use the toilet or potty chair; the desire to wear underwear
    • Handedness
      • Preference by the End of Preschool
      • By age 5 there’s a clear tendency to use one hand over the other
      • Today children are not forced to use the right hand
    • Art
      • Art is Important in Developing Fine Motor Skills
      • Children’s art proceeds through 3 stages:
      • Scribbling
      • Shape
      • Pictoral