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Motivation & Emotion
 

Motivation & Emotion

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For a General Psychology class discussion of Motivation & Emotion & its effects on behavior.

For a General Psychology class discussion of Motivation & Emotion & its effects on behavior.

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    Motivation & Emotion Motivation & Emotion Presentation Transcript

    •  
    • Motivation and Emotion
    • What is Motivation?
      • A general term describing need & instinct regulated behavior with respect to goals.
      • A presumed internal state causing a “move-toward.”
      • It is a preferential process that affects change in your equilibrium both physiological and psychological.
      • Motivation determines that you will engage in certain responses and ignore others that are possible.
      • Motivated behavior is any behavior that is energized in an organized fashion to satisfy a need or gain a goal.
      • A motive is anything that will move you to action.
      • An incentive is a physical object that can be used to motivate you.
    • What is an Instinct?
      • An inherited behavior pattern in response to an environmental stimulus.
      • It is a genetically programmed behavior pattern designed for survival in a particular environment.
    • When Instinct overcomes a Basic Need
    • Theories of Motivation
      • Drive Reduction Theory
      • Homeostatic Drives for Physiological Harmony
      • Specific Drives to Satisfy Needs
      • NEED » DRIVE » BEHAVIOR »
      • SATISFACTION » HOMEOSTASIS
      • Primary & Secondary Drives
      • Optimum Level of Arousal
      • Drives seek the Highest Physiological Arousal
      • Yerkes-Dodson Law
      • Expectancy Theory
      • Refers to Goals & their Expected Consequences
    • Primary Drives - Hunger
      • The Hypothalamus
      • Monitors Glucose
      • Hunger Detectors
      • “ Hunger center,” “Satiation center,” “Swallow counter,” “Stretch-nerves”
      • Problems with Eating
      • Cultural differences
      • Obesity
      • Anorexia & Bulimia
      • Weight Loss
      • Set-point theory & Metabolism
    • More Primary Drives
      • Thirst
      • The hypothalamus
      • Sleep
      • The hypothalamus
      • Suprachiasmatic Nucleus
      • Psychological motivators
      • Stimulus Change
      • The need for novelty
      • Natural curiosity
      • Need an optimum level of stimulation
    • The Sexual Drive
      • Lower animals driven by hormones
      • Pheromones
      • Human responding
      • Physiological (testosterone & amygdala) & psychological factors involved
      • Gender differences in arousal
      • Men aroused by images; women aroused by touch
      • Psychological factors important
      • Differences in male/female responding
      • Sexual orientation
      • Differences in male & female brains
    • Other Important Motives
      • Stimulus Motives
      • 1. Exploration & Curiosity
      • Mammalian trait
      • Need for novel experiences
      • 2. Manipulation
      • Need to experience things for yourself
      • 3. Contact
      • Harlow’s experiments
      • Need to have physical contact & to be with others of the same species (affiliation)
    • Aggression
      • Intentionally inflicting physical
      • or psychological harm on others.
      • Instinctive or learned?
      • Social Learning Theory of Bandura
      • Cultural differences
      • Collectivist vs. Individualist cultures
      • Approval by cultures
      • Gender differences
      • Males higher due to testosterone?
    • Psychological Motivators
      • Achievement
      • Mastery of objects, people, & ideas
      • Increases self-esteem
      • High achievers vs. low achievers
      • High achievers are not gamblers
      • Low achievers take big risks
      • Personality factors involved
      • Power
      • Need to win recognition or to influence & control others
      • Builds self-esteem
      • Respect vs. envy
      Tiger Woods Henry Kissinger
    • Areas of Achievement
      • Intrinsic motivation
      • Motivation based on internal rewards (i.e. the basic pleasure of the activity itself, the intellectual challenge, or the satisfaction of curiosity).
      • Extrinsic motivation
      • Motivation based on external incentives (i.e. pay, praise, attention, or the avoidance of punishment).
      Achievement Productivity Knowledge Justice Autonomy Power Duty Excellence Money
    • Classical Theories of Motivation
      • Psychoanalytic Theory
      • Initially, the source of motivation is libido or sexual energy. Later, thanatos and anxiety were motivators .
      • Analytic Theory
      • Motivation is through moral & “religious” values. Understanding the personality is the key to how one is motivated.
      • Homeostatic Drive Theory
      • Need > Drive > Response > Goal > Reduced Need
      • Humanistic Theory
      • Motivation involves more than one’s physical state.
      • We are capable of evaluating possibilities & incentives & choosing among them.
      • We have some degree of “free will.”
      • We are motivated to actualize our potential (self-actualization) and become a fully-functioning individual.
      • Self-actualization is using your talents, capacities, & potentials to their fullest.
    • The Hierarchy of Needs First Priority Needs Physiological Needs Air, Water, Food, Sleep, Protection from the Elements, etc. Safety & Security Caring for & Being Cared for; Structure, Order, & Predictability Second Order Needs Third Order Needs Love & Belongingness Community, Friends, & Family Fourth Order Needs Self-Esteem Self-Respect & Respect from Others Highest Order Needs Self-Actualization Using Talents & Capabilities to the Fullest; Know & Understand Self & Others More Fully
    • E m o t i o n s
      • A state of affectively toned arousal.
      • Basic emotions: Fear
      • Anger
      • Sadness
      • Joy
      • Disgust
      • Surprise
      • These are seen in many mammals.
    • The Dimensions of an Emotional State 2. Level of Tension Emotions give Rise to differing Amounts of activity 4. Complexity Experience is a Mixture of Thoughts & Feelings 1. Intensity of Feeling Emotions vary in intensity 3. Affective Tone The degree of Pleasantness & Unpleasantness
    • Classifying Emotions
      • Simplest classification
      • Pleasant or unpleasant
      • Location in the brain
      • Limbic system
      • Hypothalamus, pituitary, & amygdala
      • Biochemistry
      •  - endorphins & neuropeptides
    • Theories of Emotional Responding
      • James-Lange Theory
      • Stimulus > Physical Changes > Emotional Response
      • Canon-Bard Theory
      • Stimulus > Simultaneous Physical Changes & Emotional Response
      • Cognitive Theory
      • Stimulus > Physical Changes > Interpretation > Emotional Response
    • Experiencing Emotions
      • Subjective Experiences
      • Composed of:
      2. Thoughts 3. Socio-Cultural Factors 4. Behaviors 1. “ Feelings”
    • Communicating Emotions
      • Verbal Communications
      • About 20% of communications
      • Unable to describe an emotional state
      • Non-verbal Communications
      • Conveys more about emotions
      • “ Body language” & gestures
      • Many facial expressions are universal
    • Other Forms of Non-verbal Communication
      • Emblems (Symbols)
      • Differ in their meaning from culture to culture.
      • The Serpent
      • The Dragon
      Wisdom Sin Higher Self Animal Nature
    • Gender Differences in Emotional Expression
      • Differences in the same situation
      • Men tend to show less emotion; women show more concern
      • Men inhibit their emotions; women express them
      • Betrayal produces anger in men; hurt & sadness in women
      • Men & women interpret non-verbal emotional cues differently .
    • Sure Cure for Stress
    • Dealing with Emotions
      • The ABCs of Emotional Change
      • A = Activating Event
      • B = Irrational Beliefs
      • C = Emotional/Behavioral Consequences
      • D = Disputing
      • E = New Emotional Reaction
      • Recognize a Rational Belief and an Irrational Belief.
      • Irrational Beliefs are demands on one’s self, others or the world.
      • A Rational Statement is necessary to install the New Emotional Reaction.
      • 1. I must be loved and approved by almost every significant other person in my life.
      • 2. I should be completely competent and achieving in all ways to be a worthwhile person.
      • 3. Certain people I must deal with are thoroughly bad and should be severely blamed and punished for it.
      • 4. It is awful and upsetting when things are not the way I would very much like them to be.
      • 5. My happiness is always caused by external events; I cannot control my emotional reactions.
      • 6. If something unpleasant might happen, I should keep dwelling on it.
      • 7. It is easier to avoid difficulties and responsibilities than to face them.
      • 8. I should depend on others who are stronger than I am.
      • 9. Because something once strongly affected my life, it will do so indefinitely.
      • 10. There is always a perfect solution to human problems, and it is awful if this solution is not found.
      10 Common Irrational Beliefs