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Middle Childhood (Pt 3)
Middle Childhood (Pt 3)
Middle Childhood (Pt 3)
Middle Childhood (Pt 3)
Middle Childhood (Pt 3)
Middle Childhood (Pt 3)
Middle Childhood (Pt 3)
Middle Childhood (Pt 3)
Middle Childhood (Pt 3)
Middle Childhood (Pt 3)
Middle Childhood (Pt 3)
Middle Childhood (Pt 3)
Middle Childhood (Pt 3)
Middle Childhood (Pt 3)
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Middle Childhood (Pt 3)

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Social and emotional development in middle childhood.

Social and emotional development in middle childhood.

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  • 1. Middle Childhood (Part 3)
  • 2. Self-Development <ul><li>Industry v. Inferiority </li></ul><ul><li>The focus is on competence in meeting challenges presented by parents, peers, school, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding One’s Self </li></ul><ul><li>One’s self-concept is divided into personal & academic areas </li></ul><ul><li>Social Comparison </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluating one’s behavior, abilities, expertise, & opinions by comparing them with others’ </li></ul>
  • 3. Self-esteem <ul><li>Overall & Specific + & - Self-evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>The self-concept reflects beliefs & thoughts about oneself; self-esteem is more emotionally oriented </li></ul><ul><li>Self-esteem becomes more diversified at this time </li></ul><ul><li>High in some areas, low in others </li></ul><ul><li>Change & Stability in Self-esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Increases during this time with a brief decline around 12 years </li></ul><ul><li>Parenting needs to become more authoritative </li></ul>
  • 4. Race & Self-esteem <ul><li>Racial Differences </li></ul><ul><li>African Americans show slightly higher self-esteem around age 11 than Whites </li></ul><ul><li>Hispanics show increase in self-esteem toward the end of middle childhood </li></ul><ul><li>Asian self-esteem is higher in elementary school but lower than Whites by the end of childhood </li></ul><ul><li>Social identity theory </li></ul><ul><li>Members of a minority group are likely to accept the negative views of the majority group only if they perceive that there is little realistic possibility of changing the power & status differences between the groups </li></ul>
  • 5. Stages of Friendship <ul><li>Stage 1 (4 – 7 years) </li></ul><ul><li>Friendship is based on others’ behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Friends are those who like them & who share toys, games, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 2 (8 – 10 years) </li></ul><ul><li>Friendship is based on a mutual share of trust </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 3 (11 – 15 years) </li></ul><ul><li>Friendship is based on feelings of closeness through sharing personal thoughts & feelings </li></ul>
  • 6. Popularity <ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Social competence </li></ul><ul><li>Collection of individual social skills that permit individuals to perform successfully in social settings </li></ul><ul><li>Popular children are high in social competence </li></ul><ul><li>Social problem-solving </li></ul><ul><li>Use of strategies for solving social conflicts in ways that are satisfactory both to oneself & others </li></ul><ul><li>Better at interpreting the meaning of others’ behaviors </li></ul>
  • 7. Gender & Race Friendships <ul><li>Gender Friendships </li></ul><ul><li>Dominance hierarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Rankings that present the relative social power of those in the group </li></ul><ul><li>Middle childhood friendships tend to be restricted to the same sex </li></ul><ul><li>Boys tend to be concerned with placement in the group </li></ul><ul><li>Girls tend to have 1 or 2 “best friends” of relatively equal status </li></ul><ul><li>Conflicts are resolved through compromise </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-race Friendships </li></ul><ul><li>Closest friends tend to be of the same race </li></ul><ul><li>There are more cross-race best friends around 3 rd grade than 10th </li></ul>
  • 8. Family Changes <ul><li>Major Challenge Facing Middle Childhood </li></ul><ul><li>Coregulation </li></ul><ul><li>Children & parents jointly control behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Parents provide broad guidelines for conduct & children have control over everyday behavior </li></ul>
  • 9. Family Life <ul><li>Siblings’ Influence </li></ul><ul><li>Important during middle childhood </li></ul><ul><li>Can provide support, companionship, & sense of security as well as strife </li></ul><ul><li>Working Parents </li></ul><ul><li>Good adjustment of children whose parents both work relates to psychological adjustment of parents, esp. mothers </li></ul><ul><li>The more satisfaction at work, the more supportive of the children </li></ul><ul><li>Home Alone </li></ul><ul><li>Self-care child </li></ul><ul><li>Children who let themselves into their homes after school & wait until their parents return from work </li></ul><ul><li>There are few differences between self-care children & those whose parents are at home when they get there </li></ul><ul><li>There are some negative experiences but they’re not emotionally damaged </li></ul><ul><li>Staying at home can avoid some problematic activities </li></ul>
  • 10. Divorce <ul><li>Divorce Rate: 50% </li></ul><ul><li>Reaction to Divorce </li></ul><ul><li>Depends on the age at divorce </li></ul><ul><li>From 6 months to 2 years after it can show maladjustment problems </li></ul><ul><li>The quality of mother & child relationship declines </li></ul><ul><li>2X as many children of divorced parents enter psychological counseling as children from intact families </li></ul>
  • 11. Single-Parent Families <ul><li>¼ Under 18 in US Live with 1 Parent </li></ul><ul><li>Not negative or positive </li></ul><ul><li>The consequences depends of many factors including economics, quality time, & household stress </li></ul>
  • 12. Remarriage <ul><li>Blended Families </li></ul><ul><li>Remarried couples with at least 1 step-child living with them </li></ul><ul><li>17% of children live in blended families in U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Role ambiguity </li></ul><ul><li>Roles & expectations unclear </li></ul><ul><li>Gay & Lesbian Parents </li></ul><ul><li>Children develop similarly to heterosexual households </li></ul>
  • 13. Orphanages <ul><li>“ Group Home” or “Residential Treatment Center” </li></ul><ul><li>300,000 removed from homes each year </li></ul><ul><li>¾ return home </li></ul><ul><li>Other ¼ so psychologically damage due to abuse, etc. they are left in group care & remain there </li></ul>
  • 14. School Success & Failure <ul><li>Attributions Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Dispositional factors (I’m not so smart) or situational factor contribute (I didn’t get enough sleep) </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Comparisons </li></ul><ul><li>Different experiences give different perceptions of how things should be </li></ul><ul><li>Subcultural differences in behaviors related to achievement & what it is </li></ul><ul><li>Asian performance </li></ul><ul><li>In U.S. attribute school performance to stable, internal causes </li></ul><ul><li>In Asia, it is temporary, situational factors </li></ul>

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