Middle Childhood (Pt 3)


Published on

Social and emotional development in middle childhood.

Published in: Education
1 Like
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Middle Childhood (Pt 3)

  1. 1. Middle Childhood (Part 3)
  2. 2. Self-Development <ul><li>Industry v. Inferiority </li></ul><ul><li>The focus is on competence in meeting challenges presented by parents, peers, school, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding One’s Self </li></ul><ul><li>One’s self-concept is divided into personal & academic areas </li></ul><ul><li>Social Comparison </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluating one’s behavior, abilities, expertise, & opinions by comparing them with others’ </li></ul>
  3. 3. Self-esteem <ul><li>Overall & Specific + & - Self-evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>The self-concept reflects beliefs & thoughts about oneself; self-esteem is more emotionally oriented </li></ul><ul><li>Self-esteem becomes more diversified at this time </li></ul><ul><li>High in some areas, low in others </li></ul><ul><li>Change & Stability in Self-esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Increases during this time with a brief decline around 12 years </li></ul><ul><li>Parenting needs to become more authoritative </li></ul>
  4. 4. Race & Self-esteem <ul><li>Racial Differences </li></ul><ul><li>African Americans show slightly higher self-esteem around age 11 than Whites </li></ul><ul><li>Hispanics show increase in self-esteem toward the end of middle childhood </li></ul><ul><li>Asian self-esteem is higher in elementary school but lower than Whites by the end of childhood </li></ul><ul><li>Social identity theory </li></ul><ul><li>Members of a minority group are likely to accept the negative views of the majority group only if they perceive that there is little realistic possibility of changing the power & status differences between the groups </li></ul>
  5. 5. Stages of Friendship <ul><li>Stage 1 (4 – 7 years) </li></ul><ul><li>Friendship is based on others’ behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Friends are those who like them & who share toys, games, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 2 (8 – 10 years) </li></ul><ul><li>Friendship is based on a mutual share of trust </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 3 (11 – 15 years) </li></ul><ul><li>Friendship is based on feelings of closeness through sharing personal thoughts & feelings </li></ul>
  6. 6. Popularity <ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Social competence </li></ul><ul><li>Collection of individual social skills that permit individuals to perform successfully in social settings </li></ul><ul><li>Popular children are high in social competence </li></ul><ul><li>Social problem-solving </li></ul><ul><li>Use of strategies for solving social conflicts in ways that are satisfactory both to oneself & others </li></ul><ul><li>Better at interpreting the meaning of others’ behaviors </li></ul>
  7. 7. Gender & Race Friendships <ul><li>Gender Friendships </li></ul><ul><li>Dominance hierarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Rankings that present the relative social power of those in the group </li></ul><ul><li>Middle childhood friendships tend to be restricted to the same sex </li></ul><ul><li>Boys tend to be concerned with placement in the group </li></ul><ul><li>Girls tend to have 1 or 2 “best friends” of relatively equal status </li></ul><ul><li>Conflicts are resolved through compromise </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-race Friendships </li></ul><ul><li>Closest friends tend to be of the same race </li></ul><ul><li>There are more cross-race best friends around 3 rd grade than 10th </li></ul>
  8. 8. Family Changes <ul><li>Major Challenge Facing Middle Childhood </li></ul><ul><li>Coregulation </li></ul><ul><li>Children & parents jointly control behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Parents provide broad guidelines for conduct & children have control over everyday behavior </li></ul>
  9. 9. Family Life <ul><li>Siblings’ Influence </li></ul><ul><li>Important during middle childhood </li></ul><ul><li>Can provide support, companionship, & sense of security as well as strife </li></ul><ul><li>Working Parents </li></ul><ul><li>Good adjustment of children whose parents both work relates to psychological adjustment of parents, esp. mothers </li></ul><ul><li>The more satisfaction at work, the more supportive of the children </li></ul><ul><li>Home Alone </li></ul><ul><li>Self-care child </li></ul><ul><li>Children who let themselves into their homes after school & wait until their parents return from work </li></ul><ul><li>There are few differences between self-care children & those whose parents are at home when they get there </li></ul><ul><li>There are some negative experiences but they’re not emotionally damaged </li></ul><ul><li>Staying at home can avoid some problematic activities </li></ul>
  10. 10. Divorce <ul><li>Divorce Rate: 50% </li></ul><ul><li>Reaction to Divorce </li></ul><ul><li>Depends on the age at divorce </li></ul><ul><li>From 6 months to 2 years after it can show maladjustment problems </li></ul><ul><li>The quality of mother & child relationship declines </li></ul><ul><li>2X as many children of divorced parents enter psychological counseling as children from intact families </li></ul>
  11. 11. Single-Parent Families <ul><li>¼ Under 18 in US Live with 1 Parent </li></ul><ul><li>Not negative or positive </li></ul><ul><li>The consequences depends of many factors including economics, quality time, & household stress </li></ul>
  12. 12. Remarriage <ul><li>Blended Families </li></ul><ul><li>Remarried couples with at least 1 step-child living with them </li></ul><ul><li>17% of children live in blended families in U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Role ambiguity </li></ul><ul><li>Roles & expectations unclear </li></ul><ul><li>Gay & Lesbian Parents </li></ul><ul><li>Children develop similarly to heterosexual households </li></ul>
  13. 13. Orphanages <ul><li>“ Group Home” or “Residential Treatment Center” </li></ul><ul><li>300,000 removed from homes each year </li></ul><ul><li>¾ return home </li></ul><ul><li>Other ¼ so psychologically damage due to abuse, etc. they are left in group care & remain there </li></ul>
  14. 14. School Success & Failure <ul><li>Attributions Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Dispositional factors (I’m not so smart) or situational factor contribute (I didn’t get enough sleep) </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Comparisons </li></ul><ul><li>Different experiences give different perceptions of how things should be </li></ul><ul><li>Subcultural differences in behaviors related to achievement & what it is </li></ul><ul><li>Asian performance </li></ul><ul><li>In U.S. attribute school performance to stable, internal causes </li></ul><ul><li>In Asia, it is temporary, situational factors </li></ul>