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Middle Childhood (Pt 2)

Middle Childhood (Pt 2)



Cognitive development in middle childhood.

Cognitive development in middle childhood.



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    Middle Childhood (Pt 2) Middle Childhood (Pt 2) Presentation Transcript

    • Middle Childhood (Part 2)
    • Piaget & Concrete Operations
      • Ages 7 – 12 Years
      • Applies logical operations to concrete problems
      • Uses cognitive & logical processes to answer questions; appearance isn’t an influence
      • Decentering: the ability to take in many aspects of a situation at a time
      • Still remains tied to the concrete & physical, not understanding the abstract or hypothetical or formal logic
      • Criticisms of Piaget
      • He was successful in describing cognitive development
      • He underestimated children’s capabilities
      • His theories don’t apply cross-culturally
    • Information Processing
      • Limitations in Processing
      • Size of memory is based on experience
      • Memory
      • The ability to encode, store, & retrieve information
      • Encoding records information into a useable form
      • Storing places it into a memory system
      • Retrieving brings it into awareness
      • Metamemory
      • An understanding about the processes that underlie memory that emerges & improves during middle childhood
      • Control Strategies
      • Conscious, intentionally used tactics to improve cognitive processing
      • Strategies for remembering include rehearsal, organization, linking, etc.
    • Vygotsky
      • Zone of Proximal Development
      • The level at which a child can almost understand or perform unassisted
      • The focus of education should be on interaction with others
      • Cooperative Learning
      • Children work together in groups to achieve a common goal
      • Reciprocal Teaching
      • Technique to teach reading comprehension
      • Skim a passage
      • Question the central point
      • Predict what will happen
    • Mechanics of Language
      • Syntax
      • Rules of how words & phrases can be combined to form sentences
      • Pragmatics
      • Rules governing the use of language to communicate in a social setting
      • Metalinguistic Awareness
      • The understanding of one’s own use of language
      • Bilingualism
      • Use of more than one language
    • Language Development
      • Vocabulary Increase
      • The average 6-year old has a vocabulary of 8,000 – 14,000 words; the 9 – 11-year old around 5,000 more words
      • Language & Self-control
      • “ Self-talk” helps regulate personal behavior
      • Self-control increases with linguistic capability
      • Bilingualism
      • Bilingual instruction helps students develop a strong foundation in basic subject areas using their native language
      • The ultimate goal is to shift to English only instruction
    • Schooling
      • Primary Schools in U.S. are a Right & Requirement
      • Around the world 160 million children don’t have access to even a primary education
      • Another 100 million don’t progress beyond the elementary level
      • Close to 1 billion are illiterate
      • Readiness for School
      • Delay of entry isn’t necessarily an advantage
      • Age may not be the critical factor
    • Reading Stages
      • Stage 0 (Birth – 1 st Grade
      • Learning the essential prerequisites for reading
      • Stage 1 (1 st & 2 nd Grade)
      • Phonological recoding skills
      • Stage 2 (2 nd & 3 rd Grade)
      • Reading aloud with fluency
      • Stage 3 (4 th – 8 th Grades)
      • Reading becomes a way to learn
      • Stage 4
      • Have the ability to read & process information reflecting multiple points of view
    • Teaching Reading
      • Code-based Approach
      • Reading should be taught by presenting the basic skills that underlie reading
      • Phonics, & how letters & sounds are combined to make words
      • Whole-language Approach
      • Reading is a natural process, similar to the acquisition of oral language
      • Learning to read is through the exposure to complete writing
    • Multicultural Education
      • Culture
      • Set of behaviors, beliefs, values, & expectations shared by members of a particular society
      • Subculture
      • Groups within a larger culture
      • Multicultural Education
      • Form of education with the goal of helping minority students develop competence in the culture of the majority group while maintaining positive group identities built on their original cultures
      • Cultural Assimilation Model
      • The goal of education is to assimilate individual cultural identities into a unique, unified American culture
      • Pluralistic Society Model
      • American society is made up of diverse, coequal cultural groups that should preserve their individual cultural features
      • Bicultural Identity
      • Maintaining of an original cultural identity while integrating into the dominant culture
    • Diversity
      • Objective of Education
      • Provide a formal mechanism to transmit the information a society deems important
      • The presence of students from diverse cultures enriches the educational experience of all students
      • The public doesn’t always agree with bicultural approaches to education
    • Educational Affects
      • Emotional Intelligence
      • Set of skills that underlie the accurate assessment, evaluation, expression, & regulation of emotions
      • Teaching how to handle emotional situations
      • Teacher Expectancy Effect
      • Teacher’s expectations about a particular child or class brings about the expected behavior
      • Self-fulfilling Prophecy
      • A person’s expectations are capable of producing a particular outcome
    • Home Schooling
      • Reasons
      • Some parents feel 1-on-1 attention is better, others are dissatisfied with schools, others it is religious or cultural
      • Homeschooled generally do as well on standardized tests
      • Acceptance into college seems no different than traditional schools
      • Most who homeschool are more affluent
      • Drawbacks: no social interaction, no experience with diverse population, most parents are not trained teachers
    • I.Q. Tests
      • Intelligence
      • The capacity to understand the world, think rationally, & use resources effectively when challenged
      • Mental Age
      • The age of children taking the test who, on average, achieved that score
      • Chronological Age
      • Calendar age
      • Intelligence Quotient
      • Mental age divided by chronological age X 100
    • I.Q. Tests
      • Binet’s Test
      • Defined intelligence as that which his test measured
      • Reasonable indicator of school performance
      • Stanford-Binet
      • Administered orally, taker progresses until unable to go on
      • Wechsler
      • Allows for identification of specific problems
      • Kaufman Assessment Battery
      • Allows the administrator to assist in the taker’s performance
      • What IQ Tests Tell
      • Reasonably good predicting school performance
      • Not good at predicting income or future success
    • Alternative Views of Intelligence
      • Fluid Intelligence
      • The ability to deal with new problems & situations
      • Crystallized Intelligence
      • Accumulation of information, skills, reasoning, & memory learned through experience that can be applied to problem-solving
      • Gardner’s 8 Intelligences
      • Musical, bodily-kinesthetic, logical-mathematical, linguistic, spatial, interpersonal, intrapersonal, & naturalistic
    • Alternative Views of Intelligence
      • Vygotsky
      • Intelligence is assessed by looking at how well an individual performs alone and with help
      • Sternberg
      • Intelligence is seen in the way people store information & use it later
      • 3 aspects of memory:
      • Componential element: reflects how efficiently people can process & analyze information
      • Experiential element: is the insightful use of component intelligence
      • Contextual element: concerns ways of dealing with the demands of the environment
      • Racial differences?
    • Below the Norm
      • Mental Retardation
      • Disability characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning & adaptive behavior involving conceptual, social, & practical adaptive skills
      • 1% - 3% of school-age students are considered mentally retarded
      • Estimates vary because of the accepted definition of mental retardation
    • Below the Norm
      • Mild Retardation
      • Scores in the range of 50 or 55 to 70 on IQ tests
      • Can reach the 3 rd to 6 th grade level
      • About 90% of retardation
      • Moderate Retardation
      • Scores in the range of 35 or 40 to 50 or 55 on IQ tests
      • Unable to progress beyond a 2 nd grade level
      • 5% - 10% of the retarded
      • Severe Retardation
      • Scores range from around 20 or 25 to 35 or 40 on IQ tests
      • A small number of retarded
      • Profound Retardation
      • Scores are below 20 or 24 on IQ tests
      • Usually have little or no speech, poor motor control, but may learn basic self-care skills
    • Above the Norm
      • Talented or Gifted
      • Children who give evidence of high-performance capability in areas such as intellectual, creative, artistic, leadership, or specific academic fields & who require services or activities not ordinarily provided by the school in order to fully develop such capabilities
      • 3% - 5% of the population
    • Educating the Gifted
      • Acceleration Programs
      • Allows the gifted student to move ahead at their own pace, even if it means skipping to higher grades
      • Acceleration programs are very effective
      • Enrichment Programs
      • Students are kept at their grade level but enrolled in special programs & given individual activities to allow greater depth of study on a given topic