Middle Childhood (Pt 1)


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Physical development in middle childhood.

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Middle Childhood (Pt 1)

  1. 1. Middle Childhood (Part 1)
  2. 2. Physical Development <ul><li>Height & Weight Changes </li></ul><ul><li>Grows 2 – 3 inches by age 11 </li></ul><ul><li>Gains 5 – 7 pounds per year </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrition </li></ul><ul><li>Level of nutrition affects lives </li></ul><ul><li>Better nutrition affects peer relationships, emotional responding, activity level, & cognitive performance </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural growth patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Variations result from genetics </li></ul><ul><li>Diet affects genetic, racial, & ethnic differences </li></ul>
  3. 3. Childhood Obesity <ul><li>1 Child in 18 in U.S. is Obese </li></ul><ul><li>Risk heart disease, diabetes, & becoming overweight adult </li></ul><ul><li>Combination of Heredity & Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural predispositions but not a matter of genetics </li></ul><ul><li>Poor diet, lack of exercise, & sedentary lifestyle </li></ul><ul><li>Treating Obesity </li></ul><ul><li>Need to learn to control eating habits </li></ul><ul><li>Control the food at home </li></ul>
  4. 4. Health Issues <ul><li>Asthma </li></ul><ul><li>Chronic condition characterized by periodic attacks of wheezing, coughing, & shortness of breath </li></ul><ul><li>5% of children in U.S. are sufferers </li></ul><ul><li>Triggered by: colds & flus, pollution, cigarette smoke, dust mites, animal dander & excretions, stress, & exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological Disorders </li></ul><ul><li>5% of preteens suffer from depression, 13% between 9 & 17 from anxiety disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Children’s symptoms not the same as adults </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment with drugs can be a problem </li></ul>
  5. 5. Motor Development <ul><li>Gross Motor Skills </li></ul><ul><li>No reason to separate boys & girls in physical exercise until puberty </li></ul><ul><li>Fine Motor Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in myelination produces finer abilities </li></ul><ul><li>By 11 & 12 they can manipulate objects with almost the same dexterity as adults </li></ul><ul><li>Social Benefits of Physical Competence </li></ul><ul><li>Athletic competence = social desirability </li></ul>
  6. 6. Sensory Difficulties <ul><li>Visual Impairment </li></ul><ul><li>Blindness – visual acuity less than 20/200 with correction </li></ul><ul><li>Partial blindness – visual acuity of 20/70 after correction </li></ul><ul><li>Auditory Impairment </li></ul><ul><li>1% - 2% of school age children are affected </li></ul><ul><li>The adaptation depends on the child’s age </li></ul><ul><li>Auditory difficulties are sometimes accompanied by speech impairments </li></ul>
  7. 7. AD/HD <ul><li>Characteristics: </li></ul><ul><li>Inattention, impulsiveness, low-frustration tolerance, & a lot of inappropriate activity </li></ul><ul><li>3% - 7% of those under 18 are affected </li></ul><ul><li>Drugs are short-term help </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior therapy is a useful treatment along with drugs </li></ul>
  8. 8. Full-Inclusion Classes <ul><li>Least Restrictive Environment </li></ul><ul><li>The setting most similar to that of children without special needs for a full education </li></ul><ul><li>Special needs children, by law, must be integrated into the regular classrooms & regular activities to the fullest extent possible </li></ul><ul><li>Mainstreaming </li></ul><ul><li>Integrating special needs children as much as possible into traditional educational system & provide them with a broad range of educational alternatives </li></ul><ul><li>Full-Inclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Integrating all students, even those with severe disabilities into regular classrooms </li></ul>
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