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The processes of conditioning & learning for a General Psychology class.

The processes of conditioning & learning for a General Psychology class.

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    Learning Learning Presentation Transcript

    •  
    • Learning
    • What is Learning?
      • A Relatively Permanent Change in Behavior as the Result of Practice or Experience .
      • Learning is only through observation.
      • Psychologists main concern is conditioning.
      • Limits to Learning
      • The Limitations of the Organism
      • 1. Biological Predispositions
      • No activity can be learned that the organism can’t & doesn’t have the capacity to learn.
      • 2. Learning Experiences
      • Human Choice
      • Ignorance
    • Learning & the Brain
      • 4 Levels of Complexity for Learning in the Brain
      • 1. Molecular changes within the single neuron.
      • 2. Communication among the neurons at the synapses .
      • 3. The higher circuits of interconnected neurons ( neural pathways ).
      • 4. The activity within whole assemblies of neurons that might control complex behavior patterns .
    • Classical Conditioning
      • Ivan Pavlov’s Conditioning Experiments
      • Conditioned the Salivation Response in Dogs
      • The Pairing of Stimuli over Time
    • Elements of Classical Conditioning
      • Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)
      • Unconditioned Response (UCR)
      • Conditioning (Neutral) Stimulus (CS or NS)
      • Conditioned Response (CR)
      • When enough pairings of the UCS & CS occur, this response is created.
      • Classical Conditioning uses pre-existing natural responses (e.g. reflexes) and makes them respond on cue.
    • Pavlov’s Experiment
      • The natural response is:
      • UCS > UCR
      • Paired the CS (NS) with the UCS and got the UCR
      • After enough pairings the CS or NS produced the CR
      • Repeated pairings over time establishes responses.
    • The Classical Conditioning Process
    • Classical Conditioning in Humans
      • Emotional responding
      • Loving, liking, & disliking
      • Immune system responding
      • T-cells’ response
      • Desentization Therapy
      • Relief from phobic responses
      • Hunger Pangs
      • Time, smell, & appearance of food
    • Operant Conditioning
      • J.B Watson & B.F. Skinner
      • The Main Law of Behavioristic Psychology:
      • What you reinforce, you’re going to get more of.
      • Thorndike’s Law of Effect
      • Rewards increase a rewarded response
      • Creates a C/E relationship in the environment
    • Important Terms
      • Stimulus Generalization
      • Stimulus Discrimination
      • Extinction (Extinguishing)
      • Secondary Reinforcement
      • Spontaneous Recovery
      • Superstition
    • Reinforcement
      • Increases The Strength of a Response
      • Positive & Negative Reinforcement
      • Primary & Secondary Reinforcement
    • Shaping Behavior
      • Use of Successive Approximations
      • 8 Steps:
      • Decide on the goal
      • Decide which behaviors there are to build from
      • Decide on a reinforcer
      • Plan the program
      • Begin the program
      • Decide when to shift criteria for reinforcement
      • If the program is lost, go to an earlier step or add a new one and go on
      • Continue to the goal
    • Reinforcement Procedures
      • Reinforcement Schedules
      • 1. Continuous Reinforcement
      2. Partial Reinforcement Ratio (Number) Interval (Time) Fixed Ratio Variable Ratio Fixed Interval Variable Interval
    • Punishment
      • The use of anything that will decrease the strength of a response
      • Used to stop a behavior
      • Conditions for Punishment to work:
      • It must be quick, appropriate, & useful .
      • Doesn’t work as well as reinforcement
      • Can produce Learned Helplessness
    • Comparing Classical & Operant Conditioning
      • Reinforcement is important in both
      • Classical Operant
      • Reward     Response     Reward
      • In Classical, a C/E relationship must be established between the UCS & CS (NS)
      • In Operant, reinforcement schedules make the response resistant to extinction
      • Non-rewarding produces extinction in both
      • Spontaneous recovery can occur even after an appropriate response has been established
      • Stimulus generalization & stimulus discrimination
      • Occur in both
      • New learning can be based on old learning
      • Assimilation – fitting new information into what is already known
      • Accommodation – refining the data into the current schema
    • Cognitive Learning
      • Latent Learning
      • Learning not immediately seen in behavior
      • Cognitive Maps
      • Hypothetical representation of a learned event
      • A strategy for doing something
      • A series of S-R sequences
      • Insight Learning
      • The “Ah-ha!” experience
      • 4 Criterion:
      • It appears all of a sudden
      • The first performance is without error
      • The solution is well-remembered
      • The solution is highly transferable
    • More on Cognitive Learning
      • Learning Sets
      • Learning how to learn
      • Learning strategies
      • Observational Learning
      • Bandura’s learning theory
      • Imitation of observed behavior
      • Principles:
      • Vicarious learning, vicarious reinforcement, and vicarious punishment
      • Learning Style
      • Your characteristic approach to a learning situation based on your cultural background & unique pattern of abilities