Infancy (Pt 3)
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Infancy (Pt 3)

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Social development in early infancy.

Social development in early infancy.

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Infancy (Pt 3) Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Infancy (Part 3)
  • 2. The Roots of Socialization
    • Emotions in Infancy
    • Non-verbal encoding
    • The non-verbal expression of emotion
    • Infants display similar kinds of emotion
    • The degree of emotional expression varies
    • Experiencing Emotions
    • Not the same as adults
    • Non-verbal expression may be reflexive
    • With maturity, emotional expression increases in range
    • Reflects a greater complexity developing in the brain
  • 3. Separation & Stranger Anxiety
    • Stranger Anxiety
    • Infant’s wariness in the presence of an unfamiliar adult
    • Increased cognitive abilities play a role in stranger anxiety
    • As memory develops they respond positively to familiar faces
    • Separation Anxiety
    • Distress displayed by an infant when the usual caregiver leaves
    • With the growth of cognitive abilities, familiar faces become bonded with the infant
  • 4. Smiles
    • Earliest Smiles
    • Earliest smiles are meaningless
    • by 6 – 9 weeks they smile at things that please them
    • Anything that amuses them brings a smile
    • Social Smiles
    • Smiles directed toward particular persons
    • By 18 months their smiles are directed toward their mothers & other caregivers
  • 5. Decoding Others’ Expressions
    • Discrimination of Emotions
    • Can tell when caregiver is happy to see him/her
    • Can discriminate vocal expressions of emotion earlier than facial expressions
    • Can discriminate between happy & sad vocal expressions at 5 months
    • Infants learn to produce & decode emotions & begin to learn the effect of their emotions on others
  • 6. Experiencing Others’ Feelings
    • Social Referencing
    • Looking to the emotional responses of caregivers or other adults when in an unfamiliar setting for cues to interpret the situation
    • Search others’ facial expressions & imitates it
    • Occurs in ambiguous or uncertain situations
  • 7. Development of the Self
    • Self-Awareness
    • Knowledge of oneself
    • Begins around 12 months
    • Culture affects self-recognition
    • Theory of Mind
    • Knowledge & beliefs of how the mind works & how it influences behavior
    • Capacity to understand another’s intentions grows during infancy
    • Empathy
    • Experiencing another’s feelings
  • 8. Relationships
    • Attachment
    • Affectionate, reciprocal relationship formed between an infant & the primary caregiver
    • Bonds form between infants & parents, siblings, other family members, & others
    • When children experience attachment to a given person they feel comfortable around them
    • Harlow’s Experiment
  • 9. Types of Attachment
    • Secure Attachment
    • Mother is used as a base for exploration
    • As long as the mother is present the infant explores independently
    • Becomes upset when mother leaves & seeks her upon return
    • Avoidant Attachment
    • Proximity to the mother is unimportant to the infant
    • Upon mother’s return, avoids her
    • Ambivalent Attachment
    • Displays positive & negative reactions to the mother
    • Doesn’t explore much due to extremely close contact with mother
    • Ambivalent with mother’s return
    • Disorganized-disoriented Attachment
    • Inconsistent, contradictory, confused behavior
    • Least securely attached
    • Runs to mother upon return but doesn’t look at her
  • 10.
    • Interactional Synchrony
    • When caregivers respond to infants appropriately & caregiver & child match emotional states
    • Produces secure attachment
    • Responding of mothers separates secure from insecure attachment
    Mothers & Attachment
  • 11. Fathers & Attachment
    • Fathers Seen as Having Secondary Child-rearing Role
    • Some infants form a primary relationship with their fathers
    • Father’s Nurturance, Warmth, Affection, Support, & Concern are Important to the Child’s Emotional & Social Well-being
    • Certain kinds of psychological disorders (e.g. substance abuse & depression) are related to the father’s behavior
    • Infants can develop attachments to other than mothers
  • 12. Differences in Attachment
    • Differences in Mother & Father Attachment
    • Attachment with the father and mother depend on how they deal with the child
    • Mothers spend more time tending the child; fathers spend more time playing
    • Play of the mother & father is different
    • Attachment Across Cultures
    • Certain attachment patterns seem more likely in particular cultures
    • Attachment is viewed as subject to cultural norms & expectations
  • 13.
    • Multiple Interactions
    • May develop multiple attachments & these can change over time
    • Mutual Regulation Model
    • Infants & parents learn to communicate emotional states to each other & respond appropriately
    • Reciprocal Socialization
    • As an infant is being socialized by the parents, the parents are being socialized by the infant
    Infant Interactions
  • 14. Interaction with Peers
    • Sociability
    • Level of sociability increases with age
    • Social games such as peek-a-boo and crawl-and-chase are the foundation for social interactions
    • Imitation of peers are part of the social experience & a teaching tool
  • 15. Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages
    • Trust v. Mistrust
    • Birth to 18 months
    • The infant develops a sense of trust in the environment
    • This is based mainly on how the needs are met
    • If met properly it develops a sense of hope that the needs will be met successfully in the future
    • Autonomy v. Shame & Doubt
    • 18 months to 3 years
    • If the child is allowed to explore, a sense of independence develops
    • If there is restriction & overprotection it produces a sense of shame & doubt in him/herself
  • 16. Stabilities in Infant Behavior
    • Temperament
    • Consistent style or pattern of behavior
    • Refers to patterns of arousal & emotionality that are consistent
    • Refers to how children behave rather than what they do or why they do it
    • It is reflected in activity level which reflects the degree of overall movement
  • 17. Categorizing Temperament
    • Easy Babies
    • Positive disposition & adaptable
    • Difficult Babies
    • Negative moods & slow to adapt
    • Slow-to-warm Babies
    • Inactive & relatively calm in their reactions to the environment & slow to adapt
    • Moods are generally negative & withdraws from new situations
    • Shy Babies
    • Withdraws from social situations & is anxious in new situations
    • Importance of Temperament
    • Some temperaments are more adaptive than others
    • Some temperaments are weakly related to attachment
    • Cultural differences have a major influence on certain temperaments
    • Biological Basis of Temperament
    • Temperament excites the limbic system, especially the amygdala
  • 18. Gender Issues
    • Gender
    • Social perceptions of maleness or femaleness
    • Gender Treatment
    • Boys & girls are treated differently
    • Parents play with boys differently than girls
    • Fathers tend to interact more with boys than with girls from birth
    • The behavior of boys is interpreted differently than girls
    • All cultures have gender roles for males & females
  • 19. Gender Differences
    • Activity Level
    • Male infants tend to be more active
    • Boys grimace more
    • Boys have more disturbed sleep
    • Male neonates are more irritable than females
    • There’s no difference in the amount of crying
    • Gender Roles
    • Gender differences emerge via gender roles set by the society