Infancy (Pt 2)

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Cognitive development in early infancy.

Cognitive development in early infancy.

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  • 1. Infancy (Part 2)
  • 2. Piaget’s Cognitive Development
    • Infant Learning
    • Action = Knowledge
    • Knowledge is a product of motor behavior
    • As infants experience changes in what they can & can’t do, they develop cognitively
    • Schemes : organized patterns of functioning that adapt & change with mental development
    • Assimilation : taking in information that is compatible with what is already known
    • Accommodation : modifying existing knowledge to fit a particular scheme
  • 3. Piaget’s Sensorimotor Stage
    • Substages
    • 0 – 1 Month
    • Exercising inborn reflexes
    • 1 – 4 Months
    • Primary circular reactions
    • 4 – 8 Months
    • Secondary circular reactions
    • 8 – 12 Months
    • Coordination of secondary circular reactions
    • 12 – 18 Months
    • Tertiary circular reactions
    • 18 – 24 Months
    • The beginnings of thought
    • Appraising Piaget
    • Pro
    • Descriptions of cognitive development are generally accurate
    • Excellent observations of children
    • Children learn by acting on their world
    • Con
    • Parts of theories not verified by research
    • Stages not stop-&-go
    • Development is grounded in motor activity
    • Infants imitate facial expressions
    • Based on Western cultures
  • 4. Information Processing
    • Based on ways information is taken in, used, & stored
    • Infants develop cognitively via the ways they use their abilities to organize & manipulate information
    • Cognitive growth is characterized by increasing sophistication, speed, & capacity for information processing
    • Encoding, Storing, & Retrieving Information
    • Encoding
    • Process where information is recorded in a form useable to remember
    • Storing
    • Placing material into memory
    • Retrieving
    • Process by which stored information is located, brought to awareness, & used
  • 5. Infant Memory
    • Memory Capabilities
    • Some memory capacities exist
    • Capabilities increase with age
    • The more memory is retrieved the stronger it becomes
    • Duration of Memories
    • Infantile amnesia
    • Lack of memory for experience prior to 3 years of age
    • Infants do retain memories
    • Memories are influenced by interference
    • Infant memories do not last into adulthood
  • 6. Memory Systems
    • Explicit Memory
    • Information purposely committed to memory
    • Can be recalled by conscious recollection
    • Implicit Memory
    • Information not purposely committed to memory
    • Motor skills, habits, etc.
    • Does not involve conscious effort
  • 7. Intelligence
    • Developmental Scales
    • Used to measure infant development
    • Gives a developmental quotient
    • Motor skills, language use, adaptive behavior, personal- social
    • Bayley Scales of Infant Development
    • Focus is on mental & motor abilities
    • Not predictive of future development
  • 8. Individual Differences in Intelligence
    • Intelligence is Seen as a Gradual, Step-by-Step Growth
    • Visual-recognition memory
    • Memory & recognition of a stimulus
    • Faster the recognition presumed more efficient memory
    • Multimodal approach to perception
    • The ability to identify a stimulus previously experienced in one sense through another
  • 9. Language
    • A systematic, meaningful arrangement of symbols providing the basis for communication
    • Terms
    • Phonology
    • The basic sounds of a language
    • Morphemes
    • The smallest language unit that has meaning
    • Semantics
    • The rules that govern the meaning of words & sentences
    • Comprehension
    • The understanding of speech
    • Linguistic Production
    • The use of a language to communicate
    • Prelinguistic Communication
    • Communication via sounds, imitation, etc.
    • Babbling: Making speech-like, meaningless sounds
    • Begins around 1 year
    • Follows a progression from simple to more complex sounds
    • From 6 months babbling resembles sounds of the language the infant is exposed to
    • Speed of homing in on their own language is related to the speed of later language development
  • 10. First Words
    • Occurs 10 – 14 Months
    • Defining 1 st words is difficult
    • Holophrases
    • One-word utterances that stand as a complete phrase
    • 2-word phrases occur 8 -12 months
    • First Sentences
    • Occurs about 18 months
    • Telegraphic speech: Leaving out non-critical words
    • Underextension: Defining words too narrowly
    • Overextension: Defining words too broadly
  • 11. Approaches to Language Learning
    • Learning Theory Approach
    • Language acquired through reinforcement & conditioning procedures: Shaping
    • Doesn’t explain how children acquire the rules of language
    • Nativist Approach
    • Language is an innate skill
    • There is a “language acquisition device”
    • Language is prewired in the human brain
    • Permits the understanding of language & provides a set of strategies & techniques for learning a particular language
    • There is a genetic predisposition for language comprehension & production
    • Interactionist Approach
    • Language development is produced via a combination of genetic predispositions & environmental circumstances
    • The course of language development is determined by language exposure & reinforcement
    • Speaking to Children
    • Infant-Directed Speech
    • A style of speech characterizing much of verbal communications directed toward infants
    • “ Motherese”
    • Infants exposed to Infant-Directed Speech apparently begin to use words & exhibit linguistic competence sooner