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Infancy (Pt 2)
 

Infancy (Pt 2)

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Cognitive development in early infancy.

Cognitive development in early infancy.

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    Infancy (Pt 2) Infancy (Pt 2) Presentation Transcript

    • Infancy (Part 2)
    • Piaget’s Cognitive Development
      • Infant Learning
      • Action = Knowledge
      • Knowledge is a product of motor behavior
      • As infants experience changes in what they can & can’t do, they develop cognitively
      • Schemes : organized patterns of functioning that adapt & change with mental development
      • Assimilation : taking in information that is compatible with what is already known
      • Accommodation : modifying existing knowledge to fit a particular scheme
    • Piaget’s Sensorimotor Stage
      • Substages
      • 0 – 1 Month
      • Exercising inborn reflexes
      • 1 – 4 Months
      • Primary circular reactions
      • 4 – 8 Months
      • Secondary circular reactions
      • 8 – 12 Months
      • Coordination of secondary circular reactions
      • 12 – 18 Months
      • Tertiary circular reactions
      • 18 – 24 Months
      • The beginnings of thought
      • Appraising Piaget
      • Pro
      • Descriptions of cognitive development are generally accurate
      • Excellent observations of children
      • Children learn by acting on their world
      • Con
      • Parts of theories not verified by research
      • Stages not stop-&-go
      • Development is grounded in motor activity
      • Infants imitate facial expressions
      • Based on Western cultures
    • Information Processing
      • Based on ways information is taken in, used, & stored
      • Infants develop cognitively via the ways they use their abilities to organize & manipulate information
      • Cognitive growth is characterized by increasing sophistication, speed, & capacity for information processing
      • Encoding, Storing, & Retrieving Information
      • Encoding
      • Process where information is recorded in a form useable to remember
      • Storing
      • Placing material into memory
      • Retrieving
      • Process by which stored information is located, brought to awareness, & used
    • Infant Memory
      • Memory Capabilities
      • Some memory capacities exist
      • Capabilities increase with age
      • The more memory is retrieved the stronger it becomes
      • Duration of Memories
      • Infantile amnesia
      • Lack of memory for experience prior to 3 years of age
      • Infants do retain memories
      • Memories are influenced by interference
      • Infant memories do not last into adulthood
    • Memory Systems
      • Explicit Memory
      • Information purposely committed to memory
      • Can be recalled by conscious recollection
      • Implicit Memory
      • Information not purposely committed to memory
      • Motor skills, habits, etc.
      • Does not involve conscious effort
    • Intelligence
      • Developmental Scales
      • Used to measure infant development
      • Gives a developmental quotient
      • Motor skills, language use, adaptive behavior, personal- social
      • Bayley Scales of Infant Development
      • Focus is on mental & motor abilities
      • Not predictive of future development
    • Individual Differences in Intelligence
      • Intelligence is Seen as a Gradual, Step-by-Step Growth
      • Visual-recognition memory
      • Memory & recognition of a stimulus
      • Faster the recognition presumed more efficient memory
      • Multimodal approach to perception
      • The ability to identify a stimulus previously experienced in one sense through another
    • Language
      • A systematic, meaningful arrangement of symbols providing the basis for communication
      • Terms
      • Phonology
      • The basic sounds of a language
      • Morphemes
      • The smallest language unit that has meaning
      • Semantics
      • The rules that govern the meaning of words & sentences
      • Comprehension
      • The understanding of speech
      • Linguistic Production
      • The use of a language to communicate
      • Prelinguistic Communication
      • Communication via sounds, imitation, etc.
      • Babbling: Making speech-like, meaningless sounds
      • Begins around 1 year
      • Follows a progression from simple to more complex sounds
      • From 6 months babbling resembles sounds of the language the infant is exposed to
      • Speed of homing in on their own language is related to the speed of later language development
    • First Words
      • Occurs 10 – 14 Months
      • Defining 1 st words is difficult
      • Holophrases
      • One-word utterances that stand as a complete phrase
      • 2-word phrases occur 8 -12 months
      • First Sentences
      • Occurs about 18 months
      • Telegraphic speech: Leaving out non-critical words
      • Underextension: Defining words too narrowly
      • Overextension: Defining words too broadly
    • Approaches to Language Learning
      • Learning Theory Approach
      • Language acquired through reinforcement & conditioning procedures: Shaping
      • Doesn’t explain how children acquire the rules of language
      • Nativist Approach
      • Language is an innate skill
      • There is a “language acquisition device”
      • Language is prewired in the human brain
      • Permits the understanding of language & provides a set of strategies & techniques for learning a particular language
      • There is a genetic predisposition for language comprehension & production
      • Interactionist Approach
      • Language development is produced via a combination of genetic predispositions & environmental circumstances
      • The course of language development is determined by language exposure & reinforcement
      • Speaking to Children
      • Infant-Directed Speech
      • A style of speech characterizing much of verbal communications directed toward infants
      • “ Motherese”
      • Infants exposed to Infant-Directed Speech apparently begin to use words & exhibit linguistic competence sooner