G & D Ch. 8


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Socioemotional Development in Middle and Late Childhood

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G & D Ch. 8

  1. 1. Chapter 8 Socioemotional Development in Middle Childhood
  2. 2. Self-Development <ul><li>Industry v. Inferiority </li></ul><ul><li>The focus is on competence in meeting challenges presented by parents, peers, school, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding One’s Self </li></ul><ul><li>One’s self-concept is divided into personal & academic areas </li></ul><ul><li>Social Comparison </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluating one’s behavior, abilities, expertise, & opinions by comparing them with others’ </li></ul>
  3. 3. Emotional Intelligence <ul><li>Set of skills that help regulate self- & other-awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Underlie the accurate assessment, evaluation, expression, & regulation of emotions </li></ul><ul><li>They increase empathy, self-awareness, & social skills </li></ul><ul><li>Most feel it is the family’s responsibility </li></ul>
  4. 4. Self-esteem <ul><li>Overall & Specific + & - Self-evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>The self-concept reflects beliefs & thoughts about oneself; self-esteem is more emotionally oriented </li></ul><ul><li>Self-esteem becomes more diversified at this time </li></ul><ul><li>High in some areas, low in others </li></ul><ul><li>Change & Stability in Self-esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Increases during this time with a brief decline around 12 years </li></ul><ul><li>Parenting needs to become more authoritative </li></ul>
  5. 5. Race & Self-esteem <ul><li>Racial Differences </li></ul><ul><li>African Americans show slightly higher self-esteem around age 11 than Whites </li></ul><ul><li>Hispanics show increase in self-esteem toward the end of middle childhood </li></ul><ul><li>Asian self-esteem is higher in elementary school but lower than Whites by the end of childhood </li></ul><ul><li>Social identity theory </li></ul><ul><li>Members of a minority group are likely to accept the negative views of the majority group only if they perceive that there is little realistic possibility of changing the power & status differences between the groups </li></ul>
  6. 6. Self-efficacy <ul><li>The belief that one can master a situation & produce favorable outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Those with low self-efficacy may avoid challenging tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Those with high self-efficacy are eager to take on the task and spend more time at it </li></ul>
  7. 7. Moral Development <ul><li>Kohlberg’s Stages </li></ul><ul><li>Level I: Preconventional Level (Ages 4-10) </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 1 – Fear of Punishment </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 2 – Self-interest and Reward </li></ul><ul><li>Level II: Conventional Level (Ages 10-13) </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 3 – Desire to Please Others </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 4 – Respect for Authority & Social Order </li></ul><ul><li>Level III: Postconventional Level (After Age 13 at Young Adulthood or Never) </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 5 – Respect for Individual Rights & Laws </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 6 – Universal Ethical Principles </li></ul>
  8. 8. Moral Development <ul><li>Carol Gilligan </li></ul><ul><li>Boys see morality in terms of justice & fairness; girls see it in terms of responsibility & compassion </li></ul><ul><li>Three Stages of development in girls </li></ul><ul><li>1. Orientation toward individual survival </li></ul><ul><li>Concentration on what is best for one’s self </li></ul><ul><li>2. Goodness as self-sacrifice </li></ul><ul><li>Must sacrifice one’s wishes for others’ wants </li></ul><ul><li>3. Morality of nonviolence </li></ul><ul><li>Hurting others & one’s self is immoral </li></ul>
  9. 9. Divorce <ul><li>Divorce Rate: 50% </li></ul><ul><li>Reaction to Divorce </li></ul><ul><li>Depends on the age at divorce </li></ul><ul><li>From 6 months to 2 years after it can show maladjustment problems </li></ul><ul><li>The quality of mother & child relationship declines </li></ul><ul><li>2X as many children of divorced parents enter psychological counseling as children from intact families </li></ul>
  10. 10. Remarriage <ul><li>Blended Families </li></ul><ul><li>Remarried couples with at least 1 step-child living with them </li></ul><ul><li>17% of children live in blended families in U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Role ambiguity </li></ul><ul><li>Roles & expectations unclear </li></ul><ul><li>Gay & Lesbian Parents </li></ul><ul><li>Children develop similarly to heterosexual households </li></ul>
  11. 11. Shaping a Child’s Behavior <ul><li>Coregulation </li></ul><ul><li>Period when both parents & children jointly control children’s behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Includes siblings which can have an influence on a particular child </li></ul><ul><li>Sibling rivalry may occur </li></ul><ul><li>Self-care Children </li></ul><ul><li>“ Latchkey children” </li></ul><ul><li>Let themselves in & wait for the parents to come home </li></ul>
  12. 12. Orphanages <ul><li>“ Group Home” or “Residential Treatment Center” </li></ul><ul><li>300,000 removed from homes each year </li></ul><ul><li>¾ return home </li></ul><ul><li>Other ¼ so psychologically damage due to abuse, etc. they are left in group care & remain there </li></ul>
  13. 13. Popularity <ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Social competence </li></ul><ul><li>Collection of individual social skills that permit individuals to perform successfully in social settings </li></ul><ul><li>Popular children are high in social competence </li></ul><ul><li>Social problem-solving </li></ul><ul><li>Use of strategies for solving social conflicts in ways that are satisfactory both to oneself & others </li></ul><ul><li>Better at interpreting the meaning of others’ behaviors </li></ul>
  14. 14. Peer Status <ul><li>5 Statuses </li></ul><ul><li>Popular children </li></ul><ul><li>Frequently nominated as best friend & rarely disliked </li></ul><ul><li>Average children </li></ul><ul><li>Average number of positive & negative nominations from peers </li></ul><ul><li>Neglected children </li></ul><ul><li>Infrequently nominated as a best friend but not disliked by peers </li></ul><ul><li>Rejected children </li></ul><ul><li>Infrequently nominated as a best friend & are actively disliked by peers </li></ul><ul><li>Controversial children </li></ul><ul><li>Frequently nominated both as someone’s best friend and as being disliked </li></ul>
  15. 15. Schoolyard Bullies <ul><li>Torment from Bullies </li></ul><ul><li>160000 stay home due to bullying </li></ul><ul><li>90% of middle school students report being bullied </li></ul><ul><li>15% are bullies </li></ul><ul><li>Victims </li></ul><ul><li>½ of bullies come from abusive homes </li></ul><ul><li>Prefer violent TV programs/movies </li></ul><ul><li>Misbehave at home more than others </li></ul><ul><li>Show little remorse for lying </li></ul><ul><li>More likely to break laws as adults </li></ul><ul><li>Education of the Bully </li></ul><ul><li>Need to learn the importance of caring, a warm environment & better social skills </li></ul>
  16. 16. Stages of Friendship <ul><li>Stage 1 (4 – 7 years) </li></ul><ul><li>Friendship is based on others’ behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Friends are those who like them & who share toys, games, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 2 (8 – 10 years) </li></ul><ul><li>Friendship is based on a mutual share of trust </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 3 (11 – 15 years) </li></ul><ul><li>Friendship is based on feelings of closeness through sharing personal thoughts & feelings </li></ul>
  17. 17. Gender & Race Friendships <ul><li>Gender Friendships </li></ul><ul><li>Dominance hierarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Rankings that present the relative social power of those in the group </li></ul><ul><li>Middle childhood friendships tend to be restricted to the same sex </li></ul><ul><li>Boys tend to be concerned with placement in the group </li></ul><ul><li>Girls tend to have 1 or 2 “best friends” of relatively equal status </li></ul><ul><li>Conflicts are resolved through compromise </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-race Friendships </li></ul><ul><li>Closest friends tend to be of the same race </li></ul><ul><li>There are more cross-race best friends around 3 rd grade than 10th </li></ul>
  18. 18. School Success & Failure <ul><li>Attributions Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Dispositional factors (I’m not so smart) or situational factor contribute (I didn’t get enough sleep) </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Comparisons </li></ul><ul><li>Different experiences give different perceptions of how things should be </li></ul><ul><li>Subcultural differences in behaviors related to achievement & what it is </li></ul><ul><li>Asian performance </li></ul><ul><li>In U.S. attribute school performance to stable, internal causes </li></ul><ul><li>In Asia, it is temporary, situational factors </li></ul>
  19. 19. Teacher Expectancy Effect <ul><li>Self-fulfilling Prophecy </li></ul><ul><li>Cycle of behavior where a teacher transmits an expectation about a child & thereby bringing about the expected behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal & Nonverbal Cues </li></ul><ul><li>Smiling & warmth </li></ul><ul><li>More positive feedback, contact & opportunities to perform, more difficult material, & more opportunities to respond to high expectation children; more criticism, less contact, & less opportunity to perform to low expectation children </li></ul>