Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
G & D Ch. 8
G & D Ch. 8
G & D Ch. 8
G & D Ch. 8
G & D Ch. 8
G & D Ch. 8
G & D Ch. 8
G & D Ch. 8
G & D Ch. 8
G & D Ch. 8
G & D Ch. 8
G & D Ch. 8
G & D Ch. 8
G & D Ch. 8
G & D Ch. 8
G & D Ch. 8
G & D Ch. 8
G & D Ch. 8
G & D Ch. 8
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

G & D Ch. 8

1,004

Published on

Socioemotional Development in Middle and Late Childhood

Socioemotional Development in Middle and Late Childhood

Published in: Education
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,004
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
57
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Chapter 8 Socioemotional Development in Middle Childhood
  • 2. Self-Development
    • Industry v. Inferiority
    • The focus is on competence in meeting challenges presented by parents, peers, school, etc.
    • Understanding One’s Self
    • One’s self-concept is divided into personal & academic areas
    • Social Comparison
    • Evaluating one’s behavior, abilities, expertise, & opinions by comparing them with others’
  • 3. Emotional Intelligence
    • Set of skills that help regulate self- & other-awareness
    • Underlie the accurate assessment, evaluation, expression, & regulation of emotions
    • They increase empathy, self-awareness, & social skills
    • Most feel it is the family’s responsibility
  • 4. Self-esteem
    • Overall & Specific + & - Self-evaluation
    • The self-concept reflects beliefs & thoughts about oneself; self-esteem is more emotionally oriented
    • Self-esteem becomes more diversified at this time
    • High in some areas, low in others
    • Change & Stability in Self-esteem
    • Increases during this time with a brief decline around 12 years
    • Parenting needs to become more authoritative
  • 5. Race & Self-esteem
    • Racial Differences
    • African Americans show slightly higher self-esteem around age 11 than Whites
    • Hispanics show increase in self-esteem toward the end of middle childhood
    • Asian self-esteem is higher in elementary school but lower than Whites by the end of childhood
    • Social identity theory
    • Members of a minority group are likely to accept the negative views of the majority group only if they perceive that there is little realistic possibility of changing the power & status differences between the groups
  • 6. Self-efficacy
    • The belief that one can master a situation & produce favorable outcomes
    • Those with low self-efficacy may avoid challenging tasks
    • Those with high self-efficacy are eager to take on the task and spend more time at it
  • 7. Moral Development
    • Kohlberg’s Stages
    • Level I: Preconventional Level (Ages 4-10)
    • Stage 1 – Fear of Punishment
    • Stage 2 – Self-interest and Reward
    • Level II: Conventional Level (Ages 10-13)
    • Stage 3 – Desire to Please Others
    • Stage 4 – Respect for Authority & Social Order
    • Level III: Postconventional Level (After Age 13 at Young Adulthood or Never)
    • Stage 5 – Respect for Individual Rights & Laws
    • Stage 6 – Universal Ethical Principles
  • 8. Moral Development
    • Carol Gilligan
    • Boys see morality in terms of justice & fairness; girls see it in terms of responsibility & compassion
    • Three Stages of development in girls
    • 1. Orientation toward individual survival
    • Concentration on what is best for one’s self
    • 2. Goodness as self-sacrifice
    • Must sacrifice one’s wishes for others’ wants
    • 3. Morality of nonviolence
    • Hurting others & one’s self is immoral
  • 9. Divorce
    • Divorce Rate: 50%
    • Reaction to Divorce
    • Depends on the age at divorce
    • From 6 months to 2 years after it can show maladjustment problems
    • The quality of mother & child relationship declines
    • 2X as many children of divorced parents enter psychological counseling as children from intact families
  • 10. Remarriage
    • Blended Families
    • Remarried couples with at least 1 step-child living with them
    • 17% of children live in blended families in U.S.
    • Role ambiguity
    • Roles & expectations unclear
    • Gay & Lesbian Parents
    • Children develop similarly to heterosexual households
  • 11. Shaping a Child’s Behavior
    • Coregulation
    • Period when both parents & children jointly control children’s behavior
    • Includes siblings which can have an influence on a particular child
    • Sibling rivalry may occur
    • Self-care Children
    • “ Latchkey children”
    • Let themselves in & wait for the parents to come home
  • 12. Orphanages
    • “ Group Home” or “Residential Treatment Center”
    • 300,000 removed from homes each year
    • ¾ return home
    • Other ¼ so psychologically damage due to abuse, etc. they are left in group care & remain there
  • 13. Popularity
    • Characteristics
    • Social competence
    • Collection of individual social skills that permit individuals to perform successfully in social settings
    • Popular children are high in social competence
    • Social problem-solving
    • Use of strategies for solving social conflicts in ways that are satisfactory both to oneself & others
    • Better at interpreting the meaning of others’ behaviors
  • 14. Peer Status
    • 5 Statuses
    • Popular children
    • Frequently nominated as best friend & rarely disliked
    • Average children
    • Average number of positive & negative nominations from peers
    • Neglected children
    • Infrequently nominated as a best friend but not disliked by peers
    • Rejected children
    • Infrequently nominated as a best friend & are actively disliked by peers
    • Controversial children
    • Frequently nominated both as someone’s best friend and as being disliked
  • 15. Schoolyard Bullies
    • Torment from Bullies
    • 160000 stay home due to bullying
    • 90% of middle school students report being bullied
    • 15% are bullies
    • Victims
    • ½ of bullies come from abusive homes
    • Prefer violent TV programs/movies
    • Misbehave at home more than others
    • Show little remorse for lying
    • More likely to break laws as adults
    • Education of the Bully
    • Need to learn the importance of caring, a warm environment & better social skills
  • 16. Stages of Friendship
    • Stage 1 (4 – 7 years)
    • Friendship is based on others’ behavior
    • Friends are those who like them & who share toys, games, etc.
    • Stage 2 (8 – 10 years)
    • Friendship is based on a mutual share of trust
    • Stage 3 (11 – 15 years)
    • Friendship is based on feelings of closeness through sharing personal thoughts & feelings
  • 17. Gender & Race Friendships
    • Gender Friendships
    • Dominance hierarchy
    • Rankings that present the relative social power of those in the group
    • Middle childhood friendships tend to be restricted to the same sex
    • Boys tend to be concerned with placement in the group
    • Girls tend to have 1 or 2 “best friends” of relatively equal status
    • Conflicts are resolved through compromise
    • Cross-race Friendships
    • Closest friends tend to be of the same race
    • There are more cross-race best friends around 3 rd grade than 10th
  • 18. School Success & Failure
    • Attributions Theory
    • Dispositional factors (I’m not so smart) or situational factor contribute (I didn’t get enough sleep)
    • Cultural Comparisons
    • Different experiences give different perceptions of how things should be
    • Subcultural differences in behaviors related to achievement & what it is
    • Asian performance
    • In U.S. attribute school performance to stable, internal causes
    • In Asia, it is temporary, situational factors
  • 19. Teacher Expectancy Effect
    • Self-fulfilling Prophecy
    • Cycle of behavior where a teacher transmits an expectation about a child & thereby bringing about the expected behavior
    • Verbal & Nonverbal Cues
    • Smiling & warmth
    • More positive feedback, contact & opportunities to perform, more difficult material, & more opportunities to respond to high expectation children; more criticism, less contact, & less opportunity to perform to low expectation children

×