G & D Ch. 6
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G & D Ch. 6



Socioemotional Development in Early Childhood

Socioemotional Development in Early Childhood



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G & D Ch. 6 G & D Ch. 6 Presentation Transcript

  • CHAPTER 6 Socioemotional Development in Early Childhood
  • Self-Development
    • Resolving Psychosocial Conflict
    • Initiative v. Guilt
    • Preschool-age children face a conflict between desire to act independently & to do things on their own
    • Guilt comes when efforts fail
    • They see themselves as a unique person & begin to make decisions on their own
    • Parents can help resolve conflict by providing them with opportunities to act self-reliantly while still giving guidance & encourage initiative
    • Self-concept
    • Set of beliefs about what you are like as an individual
    • Their self-descriptions are not necessarily accurate
    • They frequently overestimate their skills & knowledge
    • They have an optimistic view of the future because they haven’t begun comparing their performance against others’
  • Morality
    • Social Learning Theory
    • The environment produces prosocial behavior
    • Not all prosocial behavior needs reinforcement to be learned
    • Abstract modeling paves the way for the development of more general rules & principles
    • Empathy & Moral Behavior
    • Empathy: the understanding of what another feels
    • Preschoolers attempts to avoid negative emotions can lead them to act in a moral manner
  • Morality
    • Moral Development
    • Changes in one’s sense of justice & what’s right & wrong, & the behavior related to moral issues
    • Piaget’s 3-stages of Moral Development
    • 1. Heteronomous morality (4 – 7 years)
    • Rules are seen as unchanging & unchangeable
    • Immanent justice predominates around this time
    • 2. Incipient cooperation (7 – 10 years)
    • Games become more clearly social with formal rules as to “right” & “wrong”
    • 3. Autonomous cooperation (Around 10 years +)
    • Awareness that rules can be changed & modified if there is agreement
  • Gender Identity
    • Established by Preschool
    • Shows up in play
    • Prefers same-sex playmates & games
    • They have strict ideas about how boys & girls are supposed to act
    • Gender-appropriate behavior more stereotyped than many adults
    • Become less rigid by age 7 but never disappears
    • They have expectations about male & female behaviors
  • Views of Gender Identity
    • Social Learning View
    • Children learn gender-related behaviors & expectations from others
    • Involved imitation, modeling, reward, & punishment
    • Cognitive View
    • Establishing a gender identity used to form a sense of identity
    • To establish a gender identity gender schema (cognitive framework that organizes information relevant to gender) is developed
    • Gender-specific rigidity is partly a reflection of preschooler’s understanding of gender
    • Influenced by beliefs about sexual differences & these differences are based on appearance, not biology
    • By 4 or 5 a sense of gender constancy (awareness that people are male or female depending on fixed, unchangeable biological factors)
    • Gender stereotyping: assuming certain behaviors are appropriate & others not
  • Gender Roles & Gender Identity
    • Differences in males & females
    • verbal ability
    • Girls have larger vocabularies than boys
    • Girls read, write, & spell better than boys
    • Boys have more reading & other language-related problems
    • Mathematics
    • Boys get higher grades on math achievement tests
    • Girls get better grades in math courses
    • Spatial abilities
    • Males respond more rapidly & accurately on tests of visual manipulation of images
    • Social influence
    • Girls more readily comply with directions of adults
    • Girls more readily influenced by others in a variety of situations under group pressure
    • Girls value group harmony more than boys and give in more readily
    • Aggression
    • Boys more physically aggressive
    • Girls more relationally aggressive
    • Will attempt to hurt others by dam-aging their relationships with peers
    • Emotional sensitivity
    • Girls better able to express emotions & interpret others’ emotions
    • In most other intellectual & social domains, boys & girls are similar
  • Gender Roles & Gender Identity
    • Gender Typing
    • Learning Gender Roles
    • Children learn gender roles through reinforcement & observational learning
    • Parents shape appropriate gender roles in children
    • Children learn what their culture considers appropriate behavior for males & females by watching adults & peers
    • Parents interact equally w/sons & daughters
    • Exceptions to comparable treatment
    • Parents respond differently to sons & daughters
    • Certain behaviors are encouraged
    • Mothers talk differently to sons & daughters
    • More supportive & more commands to daughters
    • Parents give different chores to sons & daughters
  • Gender Roles & Gender Identity
    • Father’s Treatment of Child
    • Treats sons & daughters differently
    • Responds more to gender stereotypes
    • More gender-related play
    • Punish sons more
    • Accept daughter’s dependence more
    • Peer Influences
    • Preschoolers critical of peers engaging in cross-gender play
    • Once child learns rules of cross-gender play tend to punish harshly violators
    • Early segregation of playmates based on child’s sex means boys learn primarily from boys & girls from girls
  • Gender Roles & Gender Identity
    • Gender Identity
    • Sense of the self as a male or female
    • Occurs in 3 steps:
    • Gender labeling
    • By 3 understand that they are either boys or girls and label self accordingly
    • Gender stability
    • During preschool, begins to understand boys will become men & girls will become women
    • Gender constancy
    • Between 4 & 7, most children understand that maleness & femaleness doesn’t change over situations or according to personal wishes
  • Gender Roles & Gender Identity
    • Gender-schema Theory
    • Children first decide if an object, activity, or behavior is female or male, then use this information to decide whether they should learn more about the object, activity, or behavior
    • After children understand gender they see the world through gender-typical eyes allowing only specific behaviors, activities, or objects
  • Parenting Styles
    • Authoritarian
    • High control w/little warmth
    • Authoritative
    • Fair degree of parental control while being warm & responsiveness
    • Give & take as well as giving reasons for rules, punishment, etc.
    • Permissive-indulgent
    • Warmth & caring but little control
    • Readily agrees to child’s requests
    • Rarely punishes
    • Uninvolved-indifferent
    • Provides neither warmth nor control
    • Authoritative best for children
    • Children tend to be responsible, self-reliant, & friendly
    • Authoritarian seems to work best for children growing up in poverty
    • Strict obedience can protect children from violence
  • Cultural Considerations
    • Collectivistic Orientation
    • Asian societies generally promote the notion of interdependence, blending in, & being interconnected.
    • There is a value on group effort.
    • Individualistic Orientation
    • Western societies emphasize personal identity, uniqueness, and competition.
    • There is a value on individual effort.
  • Racial & Ethnic Awareness
    • For Many Preschoolers, Racial Awareness Comes Early
    • Infants can distinguish between skin colors
    • Later children begin to attribute meaning to racial characteristics
    • By 3 or 4 they begin to identify their self as a member of a particular racial group
    • Ethnic identity comes later than racial identity
    • Race dissonance: minority children indicating preferences for majority values
  • The Edible Complex
  • Social Lives
    • Developing Friendships
    • Around 3 friendships develop
    • Relationships with peers are based on the desire for companionship, play, & fun
    • With age ideas about friendship evolve
    • Younger preschoolers friendships are based on doing things together
    • Older preschoolers friendships are based on trust, support, & shared interests
  • Play
    • Two Kinds of Play
    • Functional play
    • Simple repetitive activities typical of 3-year olds
    • Constructive play
    • Manipulation of objects to produce or build something
    • Gives children the chance to test developing physical & constructive skills & practice fine muscle movements
    • They also learn cooperation
  • Four Types of Play
    • Parallel Play
    • Children play with similar toys in a similar manner without interaction
    • Onlooker Play
    • Children simply watch others at play
    • Associative Play
    • Two or more children actually interact & share or borrow toys or materials
    • Cooperative Play
    • Children play with one another, taking turns, playing games, or devising contests
    • Associative & cooperative play occur in the latter part of preschool years
  • Child Abuse
    • Forms of Maltreatment
    • 1. Physical abuse (20%)
    • Assault leading to injuries, etc.
    • 2. Sexual abuse (10%)
    • Fondling, intercourse, other sexual behaviors
    • 3. Psychological abuse (10%)
    • Ridicule, rejection, humiliation
    • 4. Neglect (60%)
    • No adequate food, clothing, medical care
    • 1 million children maltreated or neglected
  • Child Abuse
    • Abusing Parents
    • Can’t be distinguished from other parents
    • Countries that condone capital punishment have higher child maltreatment than the U.S.
    • Social conditions:
    • 1. Poverty
    • More common because of lack of money creating stress
    • 2. Social isolation
    • When isolated from relatives or neighbors
    • 3. Cultural factors
    • Does not occur in all poverty families or in middle- & upper-class families
    • Increasing odds of abusing children
    • Abusing parents tended to be abused children
    • Sees abuse as a normal part of childhood
    • Ineffective parents
    • e.g. inconsistent discipline
    • Unrealistic expectations for children
    • Parents’ interactions unpredictable, unsupportive, & unsatisfying to each other
    • Children may inadvertently contribute to their own abuse
    • Young children can’t regulate their own behavior
    • Frequently ill children abused more
    • crying, whining, & annoying parents
  • Child Abuse
    • Effects of abuse
    • Cognitive & academic performance disturbed
    • Get lower grades in school, score less on standardized achievement tests, tend to be held back a grade
    • Also disruptive in class & unable to regulate emotions
    • 75% sexually abused had psychiatric disorders or adjustment problems: depression, anxiety, substance abuse
    • Type of peer & father-child relationship can help mitigate long-term consequences of childhood sexual abuse
    • Preventing abuse & maltreatment
    • Poverty-stricken families will continue abuse as long as physical punishment is considered acceptable & effective behavior control
    • Parents need counseling & training skills
    • Several years of intervention programs helps
    • Having parents become more involved in child’s education
    • Leads to more success in school, reduces stress, enhances parents’ confidence in child-rearing skills, & reduces maltreatment
  • Understanding Others
    • Theory of Mind
    • Begin to see the world from the perspective of others
    • Understand the concept of “pretend” but not the concept of “belief”
    • Autism
    • Psychological disorder producing significant language & emotional difficulties
    • 4 in 10,000 born autistic, mainly males
    • They lack a connection with others & avoid interpersonal situations
  • Aggression & Violence
    • Aggression
    • Intentionally inflicting injury or harm on to another person
    • Usually decreases through preschool years
    • Emotional self-regulation
    • Capability to adjust emotions to a desired state & level of intensity
    • Instrumental aggression
    • Aggression motivated by the desire to obtain a concrete goal
    • Rational aggression
    • Nonphysical aggression Intended to hurt another’s feelings
  • Television Violence
    • Exposure to Models
    • Aggressive behaviors more likely with exposure
    • TV violence leads to higher levels of aggression
    • Cognitive Approaches
    • Key to understanding moral development is to understand a preschooler’s interpretation of others’ behavior in the environmental context