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G & D Ch. 4


Socioemotional Development in Infancy

Socioemotional Development in Infancy

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  • 1. CHAPTER 4 Socioemotional Development in Infancy
  • 2. Differential Emotions Theory
    • Emotional expressions reflect both emotional experiences and help the regulation of emotions themselves
    • Stranger anxiety
    • Caution & wariness shown by infants when encountering someone unfamiliar
    • Separation anxiety
    • Distress infants display when the usual caregiver leaves
    • Social Smile
    • Smiling in reference to other persons
  • 3. 3 Types of Crys
    • Basic cry
    • Starts softly, then gradually becomes more intense & usually occurs when a baby is hungry or tired
    • Mad cry
    • More intense version of basic cry
    • Pain cry
    • Begins w/sudden, long burst of crying, followed by a long pause, & gasping
    • Determine why baby is crying: hunger, wet, physical discomfort
    • If crying persists, physical contact can help; pick up to shoulder & rock and walk
    • Being upright, restrained, & in physical contact helps calm babies
    • Swaddling is also helpful
  • 4. Experiencing Others’ Feelings
    • Social Referencing
    • Looking to the emotional responses of caregivers or other adults when in an unfamiliar setting for cues to interpret the situation
    • Search others’ facial expressions & imitates it
    • Occurs in ambiguous or uncertain situations
  • 5. Recognizing & Using Other’s Emotions
    • Infants Recognize Others’ Emotions by 4 Months
    • By 6 months can distinguish facial expression associated with particular emotions
    • Infants often match their own emotions to other people’s emotions
  • 6. Temperament
    • Consistent style or pattern of behavior
    • 3 Primary Dimensions
    • Emotionality
    • The strength of an infant’s emotional response to a situation, the ease w/which it is triggered, & the ease with which the infant returns to a nonemotional state
    • Activity
    • The tempo & vigor of a child’s activity
    • Sociability
    • A preference for being with other people
  • 7. Hereditary & Environmental Contributions to Temperament
    • Recent research sees morphological connection:
    • Infants & toddlers w/narrower faces are upset by novel stimulation
    • Often they become shy preschoolers
    • Brain & facial skeleton originate in the same set of cells in prenatal development
    • Genes influence levels of hormones that affect both facial growth & temperament
    • Environment also contributes to temperament
    • Positive emotional experiences produce a generally happy child
  • 8. Stability of Temperament
    • Temperament somewhat stable in infancy & toddler
    • Active fetus likely to be active infant & likely to be difficult, unadaptive infant
    • Some infants predisposed to be sociable, emotional, or active
    • Others act this way due to parental influences
    • Infant’s temperament may determine parental experiences
  • 9. Categorizing Temperament
    • Easy Babies
    • Positive disposition & adaptable
    • Difficult Babies
    • Negative moods & slow to adapt
    • Slow-to-warm Babies
    • Inactive & relatively calm in their reactions to the environment & slow to adapt
    • Moods are generally negative & withdraws from new situations
    • Shy Babies
    • Withdraws from social situations & is anxious in new situations
    • Importance of Temperament
    • Some temperaments are more adaptive than others
    • Some temperaments are weakly related to attachment
    • Cultural differences have a major influence on certain temperaments
    • Biological Basis of Temperament
    • Temperament excites the limbic system, especially the amygdala
  • 10. Development of the Self
    • Self-Awareness
    • Knowledge of oneself
    • Begins around 12 months
    • Culture affects self-recognition
    • Theory of Mind
    • Knowledge & beliefs of how the mind works & how it influences behavior
    • Capacity to understand another’s intentions grows during infancy
    • Empathy
    • Experiencing another’s feelings
  • 11. Growth of Attachment
    • 4 Types of Attachment:
    • Secure Attachment -
    • Baby may or may not cry when mother leaves, but when she returns, baby wants to be with her & if crying, he stops
    • Avoidant Attachment -
    • Baby is not upset when mother leaves, when she returns, may ignore by looking or turning away
    • Ambivalent Attachment -
    • Baby is upset when mother leaves & remains upset or even angry when she returns, & is difficult to console
    • Disorganized (Disoriented) Attachment -
    • Baby seems confused when the mother leaves & when she returns, as if not really understanding what’s happening
  • 12. Trust & Attachment
    • Erikson’s Psychosocial Development
    • Basic Trust vs Mistrust (Birth – 1 year)
    • Sense of trust in oneself & others is foundation of human development
    • With proper balance of trust & mistrust, infants acquire hope
    • Openness to new experience tempered by wariness that discomfort & danger may arise
  • 13. Trust & Attachment
    • Autonomy vs Shame & Doubt (1 to 3 years)
    • Child begins to understand he can control his own actions
    • Begins to strive for autonomy (independence) from others
    • Autonomy counteracted by doubt about ability to handle demanding situations that may result in failure
    • Blend of autonomy, shame, & doubt produces will
    • Knowledge that, within limits, he can act on his world intentionally
    • Initiative vs Guilt (3 – 5 years)
    • Begins identification w/adults & parents
    • Play begins to have a purpose as children explore adult roles
    • Begins to ask questions re: the world & look at possibilities for himself
    • Initiative moderated by guild as child realizes initiative may place him in conflict w/others & can’t pursue goals without considering others
    • Realizes a sense of purpose
    • balance between individual initiative & willingness to cooperate w/others
  • 14. Vygotsky’s Theory
    • Zone of Proximal Development
    • Difference between what a child can do with assistance & what he does alone
    • Cognition develops first in a social setting & gradually comes under the child’s independent control
    • Scaffolding
    • Teaching style in which adults adjust the amount of assistance they offer, based on the learner’s needs
    • Early in learning a new task much assistance is needed
    • Defining characteristic of scaffolding: Giving help but not more than is needed
  • 15. Reciprocal Socialization
    • Bidirectional socialization where children socialize parents, just as parents socialize children
    • Scaffolding occurs in the parent’s interactions with their children
  • 16. Gender Roles & Gender Identity
    • Images of Men & Women
    • Gender stereotyping:
    • Beliefs & images about males & females that may or may not be true
    • By elementary school gender stereotypes are learned
  • 17. Variations in Childcare
    • Many children have multiple caregivers
    • Parental Leave
    • Maternity, Paternity, Parental, Child rearing, & Family
    • Patterns of Use
    • Socioeconomic factors are linked to the amount & type of childcare
    • Quality of Care
    • Group size, child-adult ratio, environment, caregiver experience & behavior
    • Amount of Child Care
    • Family & Parenting Influences