G & D Ch. 4

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Socioemotional Development in Infancy

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G & D Ch. 4

  1. 1. CHAPTER 4 Socioemotional Development in Infancy
  2. 2. Differential Emotions Theory <ul><li>Emotional expressions reflect both emotional experiences and help the regulation of emotions themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Stranger anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>Caution & wariness shown by infants when encountering someone unfamiliar </li></ul><ul><li>Separation anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>Distress infants display when the usual caregiver leaves </li></ul><ul><li>Social Smile </li></ul><ul><li>Smiling in reference to other persons </li></ul>
  3. 3. 3 Types of Crys <ul><li>Basic cry </li></ul><ul><li>Starts softly, then gradually becomes more intense & usually occurs when a baby is hungry or tired </li></ul><ul><li>Mad cry </li></ul><ul><li>More intense version of basic cry </li></ul><ul><li>Pain cry </li></ul><ul><li>Begins w/sudden, long burst of crying, followed by a long pause, & gasping </li></ul><ul><li>Determine why baby is crying: hunger, wet, physical discomfort </li></ul><ul><li>If crying persists, physical contact can help; pick up to shoulder & rock and walk </li></ul><ul><li>Being upright, restrained, & in physical contact helps calm babies </li></ul><ul><li>Swaddling is also helpful </li></ul>
  4. 4. Experiencing Others’ Feelings <ul><li>Social Referencing </li></ul><ul><li>Looking to the emotional responses of caregivers or other adults when in an unfamiliar setting for cues to interpret the situation </li></ul><ul><li>Search others’ facial expressions & imitates it </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs in ambiguous or uncertain situations </li></ul>
  5. 5. Recognizing & Using Other’s Emotions <ul><li>Infants Recognize Others’ Emotions by 4 Months </li></ul><ul><li>By 6 months can distinguish facial expression associated with particular emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Infants often match their own emotions to other people’s emotions </li></ul>
  6. 6. Temperament <ul><li>Consistent style or pattern of behavior </li></ul><ul><li>3 Primary Dimensions </li></ul><ul><li>Emotionality </li></ul><ul><li>The strength of an infant’s emotional response to a situation, the ease w/which it is triggered, & the ease with which the infant returns to a nonemotional state </li></ul><ul><li>Activity </li></ul><ul><li>The tempo & vigor of a child’s activity </li></ul><ul><li>Sociability </li></ul><ul><li>A preference for being with other people </li></ul>
  7. 7. Hereditary & Environmental Contributions to Temperament <ul><li>Recent research sees morphological connection: </li></ul><ul><li>Infants & toddlers w/narrower faces are upset by novel stimulation </li></ul><ul><li>Often they become shy preschoolers </li></ul><ul><li>Brain & facial skeleton originate in the same set of cells in prenatal development </li></ul><ul><li>Genes influence levels of hormones that affect both facial growth & temperament </li></ul><ul><li>Environment also contributes to temperament </li></ul><ul><li>Positive emotional experiences produce a generally happy child </li></ul>
  8. 8. Stability of Temperament <ul><li>Temperament somewhat stable in infancy & toddler </li></ul><ul><li>Active fetus likely to be active infant & likely to be difficult, unadaptive infant </li></ul><ul><li>Some infants predisposed to be sociable, emotional, or active </li></ul><ul><li>Others act this way due to parental influences </li></ul><ul><li>Infant’s temperament may determine parental experiences </li></ul>
  9. 9. Categorizing Temperament <ul><li>Easy Babies </li></ul><ul><li>Positive disposition & adaptable </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult Babies </li></ul><ul><li>Negative moods & slow to adapt </li></ul><ul><li>Slow-to-warm Babies </li></ul><ul><li>Inactive & relatively calm in their reactions to the environment & slow to adapt </li></ul><ul><li>Moods are generally negative & withdraws from new situations </li></ul><ul><li>Shy Babies </li></ul><ul><li>Withdraws from social situations & is anxious in new situations </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of Temperament </li></ul><ul><li>Some temperaments are more adaptive than others </li></ul><ul><li>Some temperaments are weakly related to attachment </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural differences have a major influence on certain temperaments </li></ul><ul><li>Biological Basis of Temperament </li></ul><ul><li>Temperament excites the limbic system, especially the amygdala </li></ul>
  10. 10. Development of the Self <ul><li>Self-Awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge of oneself </li></ul><ul><li>Begins around 12 months </li></ul><ul><li>Culture affects self-recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Theory of Mind </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge & beliefs of how the mind works & how it influences behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity to understand another’s intentions grows during infancy </li></ul><ul><li>Empathy </li></ul><ul><li>Experiencing another’s feelings </li></ul>
  11. 11. Growth of Attachment <ul><li>4 Types of Attachment: </li></ul><ul><li>Secure Attachment - </li></ul><ul><li>Baby may or may not cry when mother leaves, but when she returns, baby wants to be with her & if crying, he stops </li></ul><ul><li>Avoidant Attachment - </li></ul><ul><li>Baby is not upset when mother leaves, when she returns, may ignore by looking or turning away </li></ul><ul><li>Ambivalent Attachment - </li></ul><ul><li>Baby is upset when mother leaves & remains upset or even angry when she returns, & is difficult to console </li></ul><ul><li>Disorganized (Disoriented) Attachment - </li></ul><ul><li>Baby seems confused when the mother leaves & when she returns, as if not really understanding what’s happening </li></ul>
  12. 12. Trust & Attachment <ul><li>Erikson’s Psychosocial Development </li></ul><ul><li>Basic Trust vs Mistrust (Birth – 1 year) </li></ul><ul><li>Sense of trust in oneself & others is foundation of human development </li></ul><ul><li>With proper balance of trust & mistrust, infants acquire hope </li></ul><ul><li>Openness to new experience tempered by wariness that discomfort & danger may arise </li></ul>
  13. 13. Trust & Attachment <ul><li>Autonomy vs Shame & Doubt (1 to 3 years) </li></ul><ul><li>Child begins to understand he can control his own actions </li></ul><ul><li>Begins to strive for autonomy (independence) from others </li></ul><ul><li>Autonomy counteracted by doubt about ability to handle demanding situations that may result in failure </li></ul><ul><li>Blend of autonomy, shame, & doubt produces will </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge that, within limits, he can act on his world intentionally </li></ul><ul><li>Initiative vs Guilt (3 – 5 years) </li></ul><ul><li>Begins identification w/adults & parents </li></ul><ul><li>Play begins to have a purpose as children explore adult roles </li></ul><ul><li>Begins to ask questions re: the world & look at possibilities for himself </li></ul><ul><li>Initiative moderated by guild as child realizes initiative may place him in conflict w/others & can’t pursue goals without considering others </li></ul><ul><li>Realizes a sense of purpose </li></ul><ul><li>balance between individual initiative & willingness to cooperate w/others </li></ul>
  14. 14. Vygotsky’s Theory <ul><li>Zone of Proximal Development </li></ul><ul><li>Difference between what a child can do with assistance & what he does alone </li></ul><ul><li>Cognition develops first in a social setting & gradually comes under the child’s independent control </li></ul><ul><li>Scaffolding </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching style in which adults adjust the amount of assistance they offer, based on the learner’s needs </li></ul><ul><li>Early in learning a new task much assistance is needed </li></ul><ul><li>Defining characteristic of scaffolding: Giving help but not more than is needed </li></ul>
  15. 15. Reciprocal Socialization <ul><li>Bidirectional socialization where children socialize parents, just as parents socialize children </li></ul><ul><li>Scaffolding occurs in the parent’s interactions with their children </li></ul>
  16. 16. Gender Roles & Gender Identity <ul><li>Images of Men & Women </li></ul><ul><li>Gender stereotyping: </li></ul><ul><li>Beliefs & images about males & females that may or may not be true </li></ul><ul><li>By elementary school gender stereotypes are learned </li></ul>
  17. 17. Variations in Childcare <ul><li>Many children have multiple caregivers </li></ul><ul><li>Parental Leave </li></ul><ul><li>Maternity, Paternity, Parental, Child rearing, & Family </li></ul><ul><li>Patterns of Use </li></ul><ul><li>Socioeconomic factors are linked to the amount & type of childcare </li></ul><ul><li>Quality of Care </li></ul><ul><li>Group size, child-adult ratio, environment, caregiver experience & behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Amount of Child Care </li></ul><ul><li>Family & Parenting Influences </li></ul>

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