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Modifying Your Behavior What Can You Do to Help Yourself Change the Behaviors You Don’t Want to Those You DO Want?
Modifying Behavior <ul><li>Methods for producing change tend to emphasize different things </li></ul><ul><li>Some focus on...
Using Operant Conditioning Principles <ul><li>Operant Conditioning emphasizes the role of Positive and Negative Reinforcer...
The Three Basic Elements of Operant Conditioning <ul><li>Antecedent Stimuli (A) </li></ul><ul><li>Stimuli that precede a b...
Modifying Behavior with Operant Conditioning <ul><li>Steps to Self-Management </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the problem, and ...
1. Identify the Problem & Select a Specific Target Behavior <ul><li>The specific behavioral goal or outcome that you want ...
Insuring Success <ul><li>The target behavior must be important to you </li></ul><ul><li>Failure occurs when you pick a tar...
2. Monitor How Much of the Target Behavior Now Exists <ul><li>To make any change, you need to know the current state of th...
3. Control Antecedent Stimuli <ul><li>Stimuli can serve as cues or data to help you decide what to do, or they can be trig...
4. Break Response Chains <ul><li>Many of our behaviors are a series of interconnected responses with one action leading to...
5. Manage Consequent Stimuli <ul><li>Consequent stimuli have an important influence on your actions and those of others </...
More on the Principles for Managing Consequent Stimuli <ul><li>2.  Select Positive Reinforcers that are likely to  Influen...
More on the Principles for Managing Consequent Stimuli <ul><li>3. Reinforce the Behavior Immediately after it  Occurs </li...
More on the Principles for Managing Consequent Stimuli <ul><li>5. Reinforce Each Successive Approximation to  your Target ...
More on the Principles for Managing Consequent Stimuli <ul><li>6. Shift from Continuous Reinforcement once a  Target Behav...
More on the Principles for Managing Consequent Stimuli <ul><li>7. Shift to Partial Reinforcement Schedules to Aid in the T...
6. Enlist the Support of Others <ul><li>You may need the aid of others to keep you honest and to keep committed to your pr...
7. Enlist the Support of Others <ul><li>Monitor and Record Your Progress when Modifying Behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Having...
Social-Based Approaches to Modifying Behavior <ul><li>Imitation Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Learning by watching and imitat...
More on Imitation and Modeling <ul><li>Using Imitation Learning Principles </li></ul><ul><li>Select a role model </li></ul...
More on Imitation and Modeling <ul><li>Attention, Retention, and Motivational and Physical Movement Processes </li></ul><u...
Cognitive-Based Approaches to Modifying Behavior <ul><li>The cognitive approaches try to achieve behavioral changes by alt...
More on the Cognitive Approach <ul><li>Mental practice </li></ul><ul><li>Mental imagery is an effective way to rehearse a ...
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Critical Thinking 5

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What you can do to help yourself change the behaviors you don't want into those that you do want.

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Transcript of "Critical Thinking 5"

  1. 1. Modifying Your Behavior What Can You Do to Help Yourself Change the Behaviors You Don’t Want to Those You DO Want?
  2. 2. Modifying Behavior <ul><li>Methods for producing change tend to emphasize different things </li></ul><ul><li>Some focus on the control of the environment to change overt behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>The underlying assumption is that once more desirable overt behaviors occur, less desirable thoughts and feelings associated with them will decrease </li></ul><ul><li>Others focus more on the thoughts and emotions that guide and direct your responses to situations in your life </li></ul><ul><li>The underlying assumption is that behaviors will improve when undesirable thoughts and feelings are managed </li></ul><ul><li>Both strategies work when used either alone or in combination </li></ul><ul><li>Used with self-talk and relaxation they are effective at modifying behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>You usually don’t fail at changing behavior because the techniques don’t work; rather, it’s because you don’t use the techniques </li></ul>
  3. 3. Using Operant Conditioning Principles <ul><li>Operant Conditioning emphasizes the role of Positive and Negative Reinforcers in controlling behavior </li></ul><ul><li>It focuses on how stimuli that follow responses, consequent stimuli , influence them </li></ul><ul><li>The operants ( responses that are voluntarily performed ) operate, or produce effects on the environment </li></ul><ul><li>Selecting a TV program, walking to a restaurant, turning on the air conditioner to cool a room </li></ul><ul><li>Operants make up a large part of your daily responses. </li></ul><ul><li>The process through which they are acquired is called Operant Conditioning </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Three Basic Elements of Operant Conditioning <ul><li>Antecedent Stimuli (A) </li></ul><ul><li>Stimuli that precede a behavior and can affect that behavior </li></ul><ul><li>They function as cues or signals that certain responses will be rewarded or punished, and they help to discriminate , or distinguish between things in the environment that will lead to reward or punishment from those that do not </li></ul><ul><li>They also function as “ triggers ” which cause various reflexes to occur, or they initiate overlearned habits or responses </li></ul><ul><li>They also initiate a wide variety of thoughts and emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior (B) </li></ul><ul><li>These are the specific actions that occur in the presence of antecedent stimuli </li></ul><ul><li>Consequences (C) </li></ul><ul><li>Included are overt behaviors and internal thoughts and feelings, either pleasant or unpleasant </li></ul><ul><li>Pleasant feelings are positive reinforcers and increase the likelihood of a behavior </li></ul><ul><li>When the feelings are unpleasant, the behavior is likely to decrease </li></ul>
  5. 5. Modifying Behavior with Operant Conditioning <ul><li>Steps to Self-Management </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the problem, and select a Target Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor how much of the Target Behavior currently exists </li></ul><ul><li>Control the Antecedent Stimuli </li></ul><ul><li>Break the response chains </li></ul><ul><li>Manage the Consequent Stimuli </li></ul><ul><li>Obtain social support </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor and Record your progress toward changing the behavior </li></ul>
  6. 6. 1. Identify the Problem & Select a Specific Target Behavior <ul><li>The specific behavioral goal or outcome that you want to achieve is your Target Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>It is important to be detailed and specific describing your Target Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>There are several advantages to clear, specific goals </li></ul><ul><li>They focus your time and energy in a specific direction and it enhances your motivation and commitment to gain the goal </li></ul><ul><li>Having an objective in mind helps you identify what knowledge and skills you need to make the appropriate changes in your actions </li></ul>
  7. 7. Insuring Success <ul><li>The target behavior must be important to you </li></ul><ul><li>Failure occurs when you pick a target that’s not important to you </li></ul><ul><li>To maintain your interest, you have to want to change the behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t try to do too much at once </li></ul><ul><li>Two things to lessen the chances of taking on too much: </li></ul><ul><li>Work with a single behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Look at the behavior as a chain and work on one part at a time </li></ul><ul><li>State the target behavior in a positive manner </li></ul><ul><li>State your target by describing what you want to do </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthen the desirability of replacement behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Your alternative behaviors need to be more motivating than the behavior you’re changing </li></ul>
  8. 8. 2. Monitor How Much of the Target Behavior Now Exists <ul><li>To make any change, you need to know the current state of the behavior </li></ul><ul><li>You need to obtain a baseline from which to monitor the changes in behavior </li></ul><ul><li>From the baseline you can make modifications in your program </li></ul><ul><li>It also shows you what behavioral areas need your attention </li></ul><ul><li>Recording Baseline Data </li></ul><ul><li>You need to record overt behavior and thoughts and feelings associated with them </li></ul><ul><li>It is also wise to record consequent stimuli following the response </li></ul><ul><li>Record information about specific aspects of the behavior you wish to change </li></ul><ul><li>Try not to focus only on negative data </li></ul><ul><li>Record the data as soon after the behavior occurs as possible </li></ul><ul><li>Keep the records so that a clear pattern of the behavior begins to emerge </li></ul><ul><li>Change can begin through the monitoring process alone </li></ul><ul><li>We react to being observed </li></ul><ul><li>This is referred to as reactivity or the Hawthorne Effect </li></ul><ul><li>To influence behavior, you need to follow these five remaining steps: </li></ul><ul><li>Control the antecedent stimuli </li></ul><ul><li>Break the response chains </li></ul><ul><li>Manage the consequent stimuli </li></ul><ul><li>Obtain support from other people </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor and record your progress </li></ul>
  9. 9. 3. Control Antecedent Stimuli <ul><li>Stimuli can serve as cues or data to help you decide what to do, or they can be triggers for unproduc-tive or undesirable habits, thoughts, and feelings </li></ul><ul><li>Three things to do to manage antecedent stimuli </li></ul><ul><li>Remove stimuli that act as cues or triggers for problem behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid situations in which the antecedent stimuli normally appear </li></ul><ul><li>Add new antecedent stimuli in order to increase the chances of a desirable behavior occurring </li></ul>
  10. 10. 4. Break Response Chains <ul><li>Many of our behaviors are a series of interconnected responses with one action leading to another </li></ul><ul><li>A stimulus leads to a response which becomes the stimulus for the next response, and so on </li></ul><ul><li>Two ways of breaking the stimulus/response chain: </li></ul><ul><li>Take some action which is incompatible with the chain </li></ul><ul><li>Complicate the process of doing the behavior with an activity that interferes with the behavior </li></ul>
  11. 11. 5. Manage Consequent Stimuli <ul><li>Consequent stimuli have an important influence on your actions and those of others </li></ul><ul><li>Seven Principles for Managing Consequent Stimuli </li></ul><ul><li>1. Make sure you use Positive Reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Select a reinforcer that is appropriate for the behavior you want to modify </li></ul><ul><li>No single reinforcer is likely to work in all situations </li></ul><ul><li>Aversive stimuli in a self-management program doesn’t work </li></ul><ul><li>Aversive stimuli can make things worse by increasing your frustration levels and make some problem behaviors resistant to change </li></ul><ul><li>Self-punishment in personal change programs make you less likely to carry out your plans </li></ul>
  12. 12. More on the Principles for Managing Consequent Stimuli <ul><li>2. Select Positive Reinforcers that are likely to Influence the Behavior You Want to Change </li></ul><ul><li>There are six types of positive reinforcers </li></ul><ul><li>Social interactions with others </li></ul><ul><li>Things you do to reduce psychological needs </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental stimuli you find attractive and pleasant </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal self-reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Mental images to reinforce desirable actions </li></ul><ul><li>Responses you enjoy doing to help modify problem behaviors </li></ul>
  13. 13. More on the Principles for Managing Consequent Stimuli <ul><li>3. Reinforce the Behavior Immediately after it Occurs </li></ul><ul><li>An association must be made between a behavior and a reward </li></ul><ul><li>A token system could be used where a certain reward will be earned after a number of correct responses </li></ul><ul><li>4. Do Not Demand too much Effort for Too Little Reward </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits must be weighed against the effort it took to get the reward: a cost/benefit ratio </li></ul><ul><li>If the benefits the reward provides are not worth the effort, it is unlikely that anyone will work for the reward </li></ul>
  14. 14. More on the Principles for Managing Consequent Stimuli <ul><li>5. Reinforce Each Successive Approximation to your Target Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Learning takes place gradually over time </li></ul><ul><li>Components of the total response need to be rewarded: Shaping Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Three ways to reward the components of a response: </li></ul><ul><li>Reward each subunit of the target until it is mastered </li></ul><ul><li>Administer a portion of the total reinforcer for completing a part of the target behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforce and learn the final response in a sequence of related actions before you reinforce and learn the earlier responses </li></ul>
  15. 15. More on the Principles for Managing Consequent Stimuli <ul><li>6. Shift from Continuous Reinforcement once a Target Behavior is Acquired </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous reinforcement helps to begin the acquisition of a target behavior </li></ul><ul><li>In order to continue the process and make a behavior resistant to extinction, you need to shift from continuous reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Attempt to bring the behavior under the control of natural reinforcers in the environment </li></ul><ul><li>One thing to do is to monitor the natural rewards that accompany changes in your actions </li></ul>
  16. 16. More on the Principles for Managing Consequent Stimuli <ul><li>7. Shift to Partial Reinforcement Schedules to Aid in the Transfer to Naturally Occurring Stimuli </li></ul><ul><li>As soon as you see you’re making progress in modify- ing behavior, shift to either an interval or ratio schedule </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure you don’t shift too rapidly because you may lose the change </li></ul>
  17. 17. 6. Enlist the Support of Others <ul><li>You may need the aid of others to keep you honest and to keep committed to your program </li></ul><ul><li>You may want to have a contract with another </li></ul><ul><li>When asking for another’s help don’t use others to punish you if you don’t stick to your contract </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure that the only time your support person is to assist is when you are exhibiting desirable behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Your contracts must contain specifics as to what to do and when </li></ul><ul><li>Specific contracts are more motivating </li></ul>
  18. 18. 7. Enlist the Support of Others <ul><li>Monitor and Record Your Progress when Modifying Behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Having a record of your success is an important part of achieving your target behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral changes take time, and monitoring lets you know if your plan is working </li></ul><ul><li>You know what, if any, adjustments should be made </li></ul><ul><li>You may want to enlist the aid of another in monitoring some aspect(s) of your change </li></ul>
  19. 19. Social-Based Approaches to Modifying Behavior <ul><li>Imitation Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Learning by watching and imitating and modeling another’s behavior </li></ul><ul><li>It can help when learning various skills, emotional responses, socially appropriate behaviors, and aspects of sex roles </li></ul><ul><li>Developing skills </li></ul><ul><li>Often, observing others is the first step to acquiring a new skill or enhancing an existing one </li></ul><ul><li>Developing socially appropriate behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Imitation helps you acquire socially acceptable behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Learning and expressing emotions </li></ul><ul><li>The when, where appropriate, to whom, how much, for what reason, and why are all learned </li></ul><ul><li>Developing gender roles </li></ul><ul><li>Many masculine and feminine roles are learned by observing role models and how they act </li></ul>
  20. 20. More on Imitation and Modeling <ul><li>Using Imitation Learning Principles </li></ul><ul><li>Select a role model </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics of the effective role model </li></ul><ul><li>1. Personality characteristics </li></ul><ul><li> Warm, friendly, worthy of respect, similarity to one’s self </li></ul><ul><li>2. Competence with the skill </li></ul><ul><li> Able to perform the skill at a level several steps above the level you want </li></ul><ul><li> Will occasionally make mistakes </li></ul><ul><li> Will give positive reward and feedback for performing the skill </li></ul><ul><li>3. Ability to teach the skill </li></ul><ul><li> Can break the skill into component parts to demonstrate it </li></ul><ul><li> Can organize and teach the behavior according to difficulty </li></ul><ul><li> Can talk about, label, and summarize what is being done </li></ul><ul><li> Can help you master the parts of the skill verbally or manually </li></ul>
  21. 21. More on Imitation and Modeling <ul><li>Attention, Retention, and Motivational and Physical Movement Processes </li></ul><ul><li>Attending means that you must notice the details of the model’s behavior </li></ul><ul><li>The behavior must be retained over time </li></ul><ul><li>Labeling what the model does, taking notes, or summarizing what occurs aids memory </li></ul><ul><li>Your physical abilities should copy the model’s actions </li></ul><ul><li>Observational learning usually occurs in the background and you’re not always aware that you’re following a model </li></ul>
  22. 22. Cognitive-Based Approaches to Modifying Behavior <ul><li>The cognitive approaches try to achieve behavioral changes by altering thought patterns, beliefs, and opinions </li></ul><ul><li>By changing how you think about and talk to yourself your self-image can be changed, and your resulting behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Instruction </li></ul><ul><li>When dealing with negative emotions, relax and say comforting things to yourself </li></ul><ul><li>The idea is to not let these emotions rule you </li></ul><ul><li>Helpful ideas to assist your change: </li></ul><ul><li>Repeat helpful reminders to yourself to relax </li></ul><ul><li>Reinterpret or reframe problems differently </li></ul><ul><li>Replace self-defeating thoughts with incompatible ones, including those with positive instructions </li></ul><ul><li>Remind yourself of helpful actions you can take </li></ul><ul><li>Remember to self-reward desirable behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Change can be difficult, and lapsing into old habits can bring guilt, self-blame and the tendency to give up </li></ul>
  23. 23. More on the Cognitive Approach <ul><li>Mental practice </li></ul><ul><li>Mental imagery is an effective way to rehearse a skill </li></ul><ul><li>Mental rehearsal is most beneficial when: </li></ul><ul><li>You possess the physical ability needed and are adequately prepared for performing the skill </li></ul><ul><li>It is used in conjunction with regular practice </li></ul><ul><li>You are motivated to learn and are able to concentrate and focus on the components of the skill </li></ul><ul><li>The mental images are concrete and vivid </li></ul><ul><li>The mental images follow the sequence of how the skill is executed </li></ul><ul><li>You are relaxed and not anxious when mentally rehearsing the skill </li></ul><ul><li>If possible, you have one mental rehearsal before engaging the skill </li></ul><ul><li>When combined with self-instruction, mental practice can be even more effective </li></ul>
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