Chapter 04: Anatomy of the Nervous System
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Chapter 04: Anatomy of the Nervous System



The construction of the Central Nervous System and the Brain.

The construction of the Central Nervous System and the Brain.



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    Chapter 04: Anatomy of the Nervous System Chapter 04: Anatomy of the Nervous System Presentation Transcript

    • Anatomy of the Nervous System
    • Categories of Brain Research
      • Examining the Effects of Brain Damage
      • Examining the Effects of Stimulating Some Part of the Brain
      • Recording What Happens in the Brain During Some Kind of Behavior
      • Correlating Brain Anatomy with Behavior
    • Effects of Brain Damage
      • Broca Discovered An Area Associated with Speech Production
      • No 2 People Have the Same Kind of Damage
      • Methods:
      • Working with Brain Damaged People
      • Temporarily inactivating part of the brain & studying behavior
      • Implanting electrodes into animal brains or injecting chemicals
    • Effects of Brain Stimulation
      • With Animals, Electrodes can be Implanted
      • With Humans, Magnetic Fields on the Scalp will Stimulate
      • Stimulation can also be caused by Injecting a Chemical that Stimulates a Particular Receptor
    • Recording Brain Activity
      • Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
      • Regional Cerebral Blood Flow (rCBF)
      • Functional Magnetic Resonance Imagery (fMRI)
      • Problem with non-invasive methods is interpreting the images
    • The Organization of the Nervous System Nervous System Central Nervous System (Processes, interprets & Stores information; issues Orders to muscles, Glands, organs) Peripheral Nervous System (Transmits information to & from the CNS) Brain Spinal Cord ( Bridge between the brain & peripheral nerves) Somatic Nervous System (Controls skeletal muscles) Autonomic Nervous System (Regulates glands, blood Vessels, & internal organs) Sympathetic Nervous System (Mobilizes body for action, Energy output) Parasympathetic Nervous System (Conserves energy, Maintains quiet state)
    • Anatomical Terms
      • Dorsal Ventral Anterior
      • Posterior Superior Inferior
      • Lateral Medial Proximal
      • Distal Ipsilateral Contralateral
      • Coronal Plane Saggital Plane Horizontal Plane
      • Lamina Column Tract
      • Nerve Ganglion Gyrus
      • Sulcus Fissure
    • The Spinal Cord
      • Part of the CNS
      • Communicates with the sense organs & muscle below the level of the head
      • Sends & receives sensory information to the brain & receives commands from the head
      • Bell-Magendie Law
      • Dorsal roots enter the spinal cord carrying information from the sensory organs
      • Ventral roots exit the spinal cord carrying motor information to the muscles & glands
      • Dorsal Root Ganglia
      • Gray Matter
      • White Matter
    • Autonomic Nervous System
      • 2 Divisions:
      • Sympathetic Nervous System
      • “ Fight-or-flight” system that prepares the body for action
      • Parasympathetic Nervous System
      • Brings the body back to normal after an emergency
      • Also known as Craniosacral System because it consists of cranial nerves & nerves from the sacral spinal cord
    • The Brain
    • 1 st Major Division
      • Hindbrain
      • Medulla, Pons, Reticular Formation & Cerebellum
      • Medulla controls breathing, heart rate, vomiting, coughing & other vital reflexes through the cranial nerves
      • Pons job is sensorimotor control and with the medulla deals with blood pressure, temperature, heart rate, and breathing
      • Cerebellum controls speech production, learning skills, walking, unconscious movements, & coordinates reflexes
      • Reticular Formation is involved in alertness, sleep & wakefulness, & is a censor of incoming information
    • 2 nd Major Division
      • Midbrain
      • Tectum, Tegmentum & the Substantia Nigra
      • Tectum is made up of the Superior & Inferior Colliculus, both involved in processing sensory information
      • Tegmentum includes part of the Reticular Formation, part of the Substantia Nigra & the Red Nucleus which processes rewarding stimuli & sensorimotor control
      • Substantia Nigra contains dopamine neurons in the reward circuit & which deteriorate in Parkinson’s
    • 3 rd Major Division
      • Forebrain
      • Cerebral Cortex & several Subcortical Areas
      • Limbic System consists of the Thalamus, Hypothalamus, Amygdala, Hippocampus & Olfactory Bulbs
      • Basal Forebrain includes the Nucleus Basalis & is key in arousal
      • Basal Ganglia includes the Caudate, Putamen, & Globus Pallidus & deterioriates in Parkinson’s & Huntington’s Diseases
      • Pituitary Gland is an endocrine gland that is involved secreting vasopressin and oxytocin
    • The Ventricles
      • Central Canal
      • Fluid-filled channel in the center of the spinal cord
      • Cerebrospinal Fluid
      • Clear fluid found in the ventricles & central canal formed by the choroid plexus cells in the ventricles
      • Meninges
      • Thin membranes surrounding the brain & spinal cord
      • Hydrocephalus
      • Obstruction & accumulation of CSF in the ventricles or subarachnoid space
    • Cerebral Cortex
      • Consists of the 2 Hemispheres
      • Divided into 4 Lobes
      • Occipital
      • Parietal
      • Temporal
      • Frontal
    • Forebrain
      • Each Hemisphere Receives Contralateral Sensory Information & Controls Contralateral Motor Movement
      • Cerebral Cortex is the Cellular Layers on the Outer Surface of the Cerebral Hemispheres
    • Organization of the Cerebral Cortex
      • Laminae
      • Up to 6 distinct Laminae or layers
      • Columns
      • Cells in Cerebral Cortex also arranged in Columns
      • Columns lie perpendicular to Laminae
    • Hemispheric Communications
      • Corpus Callosum
      • Main communications route between the hemispheres
      • Anterior Commissure
      • 2 nd bundle of axons that allows communications between the hemispheres
    • Lobes of the Brain
      • Occipital Lobe
      • Part of the visual pathway system
      • The Primary Visual Cortex (Striate Cortex) is the most posterior of the Occipital Lobe
      • Destruction of any part of the Striate Cortex produces cortical blindness
    • Lobes of the Brain
      • Parietal Lobe
      • Between the Occipital Lobe and the Central Sulcus
      • Primary target for touch sensations & information from muscle-stretch receptors & joint receptors
      • Monitors all information about the eye, head, & body positions as it passes it on to the brain areas that control movement
    • Lobes of the Brain
      • Temporal Lobe
      • Primary target for auditory information
      • In humans, involved in the comprehension of spoken language & contributes to complex aspects of vision, including facial recognition & perception of movement
      • Kluver-Bucy Syndrome: after temporal lobe damage, lack of fear or anxiety responding
    • Lobes of the Brain
      • Frontal Lobe
      • Contains the Primary Motor Cortex & Prefrontal Cortex
      • Precentral Gyrus (Primary Motor Cortex) is specialized for fine motor movements, primarily on the contralateral side of the body
      • Prefrontal Cortex forms a large part of the brain
      • It receives information from all the senses
    • Lobes of the Brain
      • Viewing Prefrontal Functions
      • Important in Working Memory
      • Damage to Prefrontal Cortex affects time-delayed memory tasks
      • Important for Context-Dependent Behaviors (State Dependent vs. Context Dependent)
    • Prefrontal Lobotomy
      • Pretty Much Abandoned at Present
      • Prefrontal damage produces loss of social inhibitions & impulsive acting out
      • Disconnecting the prefrontal cortex from most of the brain to control psychological disorders
      • Usually resulted in loss of the ability to plan, take initiative, memory disorders, distractibility, & loss of emotional expression
      • Today, drugs are in use
    • The Binding Problem
      • How do Visual, Auditory, & other areas of the brain influence one another to produce a combined perception of a single object?
      • Early on, it was thought the Association Areas were used for processing & linking information from several sensory modalities
      • Binding may depend on simultaneous activity in various areas of the brain