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Adolescence (Pt 2)
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Adolescence (Pt 2)

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Cognitive growth in Adolescence

Cognitive growth in Adolescence

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  • 1. Adolescence (Part2)
  • 2. Piaget
    • Formal Operations
    • Abstract thinking using formal logic
    • Hypotheticodeductive reasoning;
    • Start with a general theory about what produces a particular outcome then deduce explanations for specific situations in which that particular outcome is seen
    • Can begin with abstract possibilities & move to the concrete
    • Propositional thought:
    • Reasoning that uses abstract logic in the absence of concrete examples
    • It’s a gradual unfolding
    • Culture influences the operations
  • 3. Information Processing
    • Information Processing Approach
    • Seeks to identify the way that we take in, use, & store information
    • Metacognition
    • Knowledge that people have about their own thinking processes & their ability to monitor them
    • Adolescent Egocentricism
    • Teen’s view that everyone is as interested in them as they are
    • Imaginary Audience
    • A teen sees behavior as constantly being watched by others, esp. peers
    • Personal Fable
    • The idea that one’s feelings and experiences are unique & no one else has them
  • 4. Adolescent Thinking
    • Mental Sophistication
    • Can think hypothetically
    • The store of knowledge increases as the memory enlarges
    • Improvement of intelligence
    • Egocentricism
    • Constructs elaborate scenarios
    • Tend to become self-absorbed
    • Egocentricism, imaginary audience, personal fable construction
  • 5. Kohlberg’s Moral Development
    • 6 Stages
    • Preconventional Morality
    • Stage 1 – Desire to avoid punishment
    • Stage 2 – Desire for reward
    • Conventional Morality
    • Stage 3 – Have respect for others
    • Stage 4 – Maintaining social order
    • Postconventional Morality
    • Stage 5 – Respect for individual rights & laws
    • Stage 6 – Universal ethical morality
    • Further research shows moral reasoning depends on the situation
  • 6. Gilligan’s Moral Development
    • 3 Stages
    • Stage 1
    • The focus is on what is practical & best for one’s self
    • Stage 2
    • The focus is on self- sacrifice
    • Stage 3
    • The focus is on the idea that hurting one’s self or others is immoral
  • 7. School Performance
    • 78% of U.S. High School Students Graduate
    • SES Scores
    • Middle- & high-SES students score higher grades on standardized tests of achievement & complete more years of education
    • Poverty contributes to lower scores, less years of education, etc.
  • 8. Ethnic/Racial Differences in Performance
    • African American & Hispanic Performance
    • Asian Americans performance higher
    • Difference in part to SES & their view of education
    • Education is less important than getting a job
    • Hard work in school has no payoff
    • Beliefs Regarding Academic Success
    • African Americans more apt to view success as the result of external causes, luck, or social biases
    • They have no control over their success
    • Adolescent beliefs about the consequences of not doing will may also contribute to the differences in school performance
  • 9. Part-time Job
    • Advantages
    • 38% of 15 yr. olds have a regular job
    • Money for recreation & clothes
    • Workplace skills learned
    • Understand the nature of work & specific employment settings
    • Disadvantages
    • Low on transferable skills
    • Can affect school performance
    • Prevents the participation in extracurricular activities
  • 10. Dropping Out
    • Statistics
    • ½ million drop out each year
    • Earn 42% less than high school grads
    • Unemployment rate for drop outs is 50%
    • Males drop out more than females
    • Hispanic & African Americans are more likely to drop out
    • Poverty plays a major role in who completes high school
  • 11. College
    • Gaining a Degree
    • 40% starting college get a degree
    • 50% of those not completing eventually get a degree
    • Gender & College
    • Women tend toward education & social sciences
    • Men tend toward engineering, physical sciences, & mathematics
    • Professors (male & female) treat males & females differently
    • Call on & make more eye contact with males than females
    • Males tend to receive more positive reinforcement
  • 12. Gender/Racial Barriers to Achievement
    • Stereotyping in Academics
    • Women seem to accept social stereotypes about themselves
    • That’s the reason they take less math & science classes
    • They tend to be more concerned about failure
    • Women are more vulnerable to stereotype expectations about success
    • Hispanic & African Americans may be vulnerable as well
  • 13. Choosing a Career
    • 3 Stages of Career Choosing
    • Fantasy period
    • Period of life when careers choices are made solely on the basis of what sounds appealing
    • Tentative period
    • Beginning to think practically about jobs & their requirements that may fit abilities
    • Realistic period
    • Narrowing down choices to a few alternatives & eventually committing to one
  • 14. Personality Types & Careers
    • Realistic
    • Down-to-earth, practical problem solvers, but lack social skills
    • Make good farmers, laborers, & truck drivers
    • Intellectual
    • Oriented toward the theoretical & abstract, not particularly good with people
    • Math & science careers
    • Social
    • Good verbal skills & interpersonal relations
    • Salespersons, teachers, & counselors
    • Conventional
    • Prefer highly structured tasks
    • Clerks, secretaries, & bank tellers
    • Enterprising
    • Risk takers & take-charge types
    • Managers & politicians
    • Artistic
    • Use art to express themselves, prefer art to interaction with people
    • Anything to do with art
  • 15. Women’s Careers
    • Communal Professions
    • Occupations associated with relationships
    • Traditionally, considered the best profession for women
    • Agentic Professions
    • Professions associated with getting things done
    • Traditionally, considered the best profession for men
    • Earning Power
    • ¾ of a man’s earnings
    • Glass ceiling
    • Invisible barrier in an organization that prevents one from being promoted beyond a certain level due to discrimination

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