2011 ch 6


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This chapter looks at the processes of conditioning and other forms of learning.

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2011 ch 6

  1. 2. Chapter 6: Conditioning and Learning
  2. 3. What is Learning? <ul><li>A Relatively Permanent Change in Behavior as the Result of Practice or Experience . </li></ul><ul><li>Learning is only through observation. </li></ul><ul><li>Psychologists main concern is conditioning. </li></ul><ul><li>Limits to Learning </li></ul><ul><li>The Limitations of the Organism </li></ul><ul><li>1. Biological Predispositions </li></ul><ul><li>No activity can be learned that the organism can’t & doesn’t have the capacity to learn. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Learning Experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Human Choice </li></ul><ul><li>Ignorance </li></ul>
  3. 4. Types of Learning <ul><li>Associative Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Two types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Classical Conditioning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operant Conditioning </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. Classical Conditioning <ul><li>Ivan Pavlov’s Conditioning Experiments </li></ul><ul><li>Conditioned the Salivation Response in Dogs </li></ul><ul><li>The Pairing of Stimuli over Time </li></ul>
  5. 6. Pavlov’s Experiment <ul><li>The natural response is: </li></ul><ul><li>UCS > UCR </li></ul><ul><li>Paired the CS (NS) with the UCS and got the UCR </li></ul><ul><li>After enough pairings the CS or NS produced the CR </li></ul><ul><li>Repeated pairings over time establishes responses. </li></ul>
  6. 7. Elements of Classical Conditioning <ul><li>Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) </li></ul><ul><li>Unconditioned Response (UCR) </li></ul><ul><li>Conditioning (Neutral) Stimulus (CS or NS) </li></ul><ul><li>Conditioned Response (CR) </li></ul><ul><li>When enough pairings of the UCS & CS occur, this response is created. </li></ul><ul><li>Classical Conditioning uses pre-existing natural responses (e.g. reflexes) and makes them respond on cue. </li></ul>
  7. 8. The Classical Conditioning Process
  8. 9. Important Terms <ul><li>Stimulus Generalization </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulus Discrimination </li></ul><ul><li>Extinction (Extinguishing) </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary Reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Spontaneous Recovery </li></ul><ul><li>Superstition </li></ul>
  9. 10. Classical Conditioning in Humans <ul><li>Conditioned Emotional Responses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learned Fears </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phobia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intense, unrealistic, irrational fear of a specific situation or object </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conditioned Emotional Response </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Learned emotional reaction to a previously neutral stimulus </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Amygdala becomes more active; produces feelings of fear </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Conditioned Emotional Responses (con’t) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Desensitization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Therapy for CERs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exposes phobic people gradually to feared stimuli while they stay calm and relaxed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Hunger Pangs </li></ul><ul><li>T-cell Response </li></ul>
  10. 11. Operant Conditioning <ul><li>J.B Watson & B.F. Skinner </li></ul><ul><li>The Main Law of Behavioristic Psychology: </li></ul><ul><li>What you reinforce, you’re going to get more of. </li></ul><ul><li>Thorndike’s Law of Effect </li></ul><ul><li>Rewards increase a rewarded response </li></ul><ul><li>Creates a C/E relationship in the environment </li></ul>
  11. 12. Operant Conditioning <ul><li>Response-Contingent Reinforcement: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reinforcement given only when a particular response occurs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We learn to expect that a certain response will have a certain effect at certain times </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Shaping Behavior <ul><li>Use of Successive Approximations </li></ul><ul><li>8 Steps: </li></ul><ul><li>Decide on the goal </li></ul><ul><li>Decide which behaviors there are to build from </li></ul><ul><li>Decide on a reinforcer </li></ul><ul><li>Plan the program </li></ul><ul><li>Begin the program </li></ul><ul><li>Decide when to shift criteria for reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>If the program is lost, go to an earlier step or add a new one and go on </li></ul><ul><li>Continue to the goal </li></ul>
  13. 14. Reinforcement <ul><li>Increases The Strength of a Response </li></ul><ul><li>Primary & Secondary Reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Positive & Negative Reinforcement </li></ul>
  14. 15. Reinforcement Procedures <ul><li>Reinforcement Schedules </li></ul><ul><li>1. Continuous Reinforcement </li></ul>2. Partial Reinforcement Ratio (Number) Interval (Time) Fixed Ratio Variable Ratio Fixed Interval Variable Interval
  15. 16. Punishment <ul><li>The use of anything that will decrease the strength of a response </li></ul><ul><li>Used to stop a behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Conditions for Punishment to work: </li></ul><ul><li>It must be quick, appropriate, & useful. </li></ul><ul><li>Doesn’t work as well as reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Can produce Learned Helplessness </li></ul>
  16. 17. Comparing Classical & Operant Conditioning <ul><li>Reinforcement is important in both </li></ul><ul><li>Classical Operant </li></ul><ul><li> Reward     Response     Reward </li></ul><ul><li>In Classical, a C/E relationship must be established between the UCS & CS (NS) </li></ul><ul><li>In Operant, reinforcement schedules make the response resistant to extinction </li></ul><ul><li>Non-rewarding produces extinction in both </li></ul><ul><li>Spontaneous recovery can occur even after an appropriate response has been established </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulus generalization & stimulus discrimination </li></ul><ul><li>Occur in both </li></ul><ul><li>New learning can be based on old learning </li></ul><ul><li>Assimilation – fitting new information into what is already known </li></ul><ul><li>Accommodation – refining the data into the current schema </li></ul>
  17. 18. Cognitive Learning <ul><li>Higher-level learning involving thinking, knowing, understanding, and anticipation </li></ul><ul><li>Looks at the thinking processes underlying learning </li></ul>
  18. 19. Cognitive Maps <ul><li>Internal representation of an area, like a city or a maze; </li></ul><ul><li>Underlies ability to choose alternate paths to the same goal </li></ul>
  19. 20. Latent Learning <ul><li>Occurs without obvious reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Not demonstrated until reinforcement is provided </li></ul><ul><li>Related to higher abilities, such as anticipation </li></ul>
  20. 21. Imitation & Modeling <ul><li>Also called observational learning (Albert Bandura) </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs two ways: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>by watching and imitating actions of another person </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>by noting consequences of a person’s actions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Occurs before direct practice is allowed </li></ul><ul><li>Allows skipping of trial-and-error learning </li></ul>
  21. 22. Modeling and the Media <ul><li>All media provides opportunities for imitation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pro wrestling, rap music, video games </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Typical TV viewers are exposed to a massive dose of media violence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tends to promote observational learning of aggression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Links between aggressive TV and aggressive behavior </li></ul></ul>
  22. 23. Modeling and the Media <ul><li>Media violence does not “cause” aggression, but makes it more likely, especially if children </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Believe aggression is acceptable problem-solving </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TV violence is realistic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identify with TV characters </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t realize that TV stories and characters are fantasies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Video games may desensitize players to violence and allow them to practice violence against other people . </li></ul>