2011 ch 5


Published on

Discussion in this chapter focuses on consciousness and altered states of consciousness. We look at sleep and dreaming, hypnosis, meditation, and the effects of illicit drugs.

Published in: Technology, Business
1 Like
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

2011 ch 5

  1. 2. Chapter 5: States of Consciousness
  2. 3. What is Consciousness? <ul><li>Awareness of internal or external events or states </li></ul><ul><li>More than a simple state of awareness. </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult to define. </li></ul><ul><li>Processes involved in Consciousness </li></ul><ul><li>1. Attention </li></ul><ul><li>2. Intentionality </li></ul><ul><li>3. Subjectivity </li></ul><ul><li>4. Perception </li></ul><ul><li>5. Learning & Memory </li></ul><ul><li>6. Emotions </li></ul><ul><li>7. Associations </li></ul><ul><li>8. Awareness </li></ul><ul><li>9. Arousal of the Nervous System </li></ul>
  3. 4. The Brain’s Job <ul><li>Consciousness is a process going on in the brain. </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the brain’s functioning is for survival. </li></ul><ul><li>Very little of the functioning of the brain is devoted to consciousness. </li></ul>
  4. 5. Altered States of Consciousness <ul><li>A Fundamental & Qualitative Shift in Mental Functioning which brings about a Distinctly Different Organizational Pattern of Subjective Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Awareness is constantly shifting </li></ul><ul><li>Altered States </li></ul><ul><li>Drugs, alcohol, sleep, daydreaming, hypnosis, meditation, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Daydreaming & fantasy </li></ul><ul><li>Not sure of the value. </li></ul><ul><li>There is an escape value. </li></ul><ul><li>The problem occurs when daydreaming takes over your life. </li></ul>
  5. 6. Sleep Deprivation <ul><li>Problems encountered </li></ul><ul><li>30% - 50% of students fall asleep in class at least 1 time a week. </li></ul><ul><li>Losing 1-2 hours of sleep each night produces attention problems, slows reaction time, produces unpredictable behavior, judgmental errors, & lowers productivity & decision-making ability . Can lead to a psychosis. </li></ul><ul><li>How do you know if you’re getting enough sleep? </li></ul><ul><li>Being put in a darkened room & you immediately fall asleep is the main symptom of chronic sleep loss. </li></ul><ul><li>You can reduce sleep loss by taking short naps during the day. </li></ul>
  6. 7. Sleep Patterns <ul><li>REM sleep is called “Paradoxical Sleep” </li></ul><ul><li>Brain activity, heart rate, & blood pressure resemble being awake. </li></ul><ul><li>85% relationship between REM & dreams. </li></ul><ul><li>Cycling through the stages </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 1 is light sleep with slow brain waves. </li></ul><ul><li>Stages 2 & 3 are more relaxed with slower brain waves and no dreams. </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 4 is deep sleep. </li></ul>
  7. 8. Dual Process Hypothesis of Sleep <ul><li>Two kinds of sleep </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-REM (NREM) Sleep </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Occurs during stages 1, 2, 3, and 4 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid Eye Movement (REM): </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EEG patterns resemble those waking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Associated with dreaming </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Body is very still during REM sleep </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cycle between both while sleeping </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. Dual Process Hypothesis of Sleep <ul><li>REM sleep and dreaming </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People awakened during REM report dreaming 85% of time. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dreams during REM have a more “dream-like” quality than those of NREM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Imagery and Emotion brain centers become more active than in NREM dreams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical arousal occurs during dreaming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Body is still </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. Sleep Disturbances: Insomnia <ul><li>Difficulty in getting to sleep or staying asleep, or waking early </li></ul><ul><li>Temporary insomnia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brief period of sleeplessness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Caused by worry, stress, and excitement. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creates cycle of frustration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid fighting it; EX: Read a book until you’re struggling to stay awake. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chronic insomnia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Insomnia lasting more than three weeks </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. Sleep Disturbances: Insomnia <ul><li>Behavioral Remedies for Insomnia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulus control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sleep restriction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paradoxical intention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relaxation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exercise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Controlling food intake </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoiding stimulants </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Sleep Disturbances: Sleepwalking, Sleeptalking, & Sleepsex <ul><li>Sleepwalking (Somnambulism): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Walking or wandering while asleep </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Occurs in NREM sleep during Stages 3 and 4 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sleeptalking: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Speaking while asleep </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Occurs in NREM sleep </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sleepsex </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sexsomnia </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Sleep Disturbances: Nightmares & Night Terrors <ul><li>Nightmare </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bad dreams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Occur during REM sleep </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Imagery rehearsal may help eliminate nightmares </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Night Terror </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Total panic attack; hallucination of frightening images </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Occur during NREM (Stage 4) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Little of episode is remembered upon waking </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. Sleep Disturbances: Sleep Apnea <ul><li>Interrupted breathing during sleep </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Breathing stops 20 seconds – 2 minutes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Symptoms: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gasping or snorting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Snoring loudly </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gulping air </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breathing may stop and start hundreds of times per night </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. Sleep Disturbances: Sleep Apnea <ul><li>Caused by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disruption of signals from brain to diaphragm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blockage of nasal passages </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Apnea can be treated by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Surgery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weight loss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breathing mask </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. Sleep Disturbances: Sleep Apnea <ul><li>Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also known as Crib Death </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sudden, unexplained death of healthy infant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SIDS babies have a weak arousal reflex; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prevents them from changing positions and resuming breathing after an apnea episode </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Back sleeping is best position </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 17. Dreams <ul><li>Most people dream 4-5 times per night </li></ul><ul><li>Dreams are spaced approximately 90 minutes apart </li></ul><ul><li>First dream is about 10 minutes; last is about 30 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>REM Rebound </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extra rapid eye movement sleep following REM sleep deprivation </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. Theories of Dreams <ul><li>Freud </li></ul><ul><li>Dreams represent unfulfilled wishes & reflect manifest & latent motives. </li></ul><ul><li>They are expressions of primitive, amoral desires. </li></ul><ul><li>Jung </li></ul><ul><li>Dreams are one way that the unconscious expresses itself. </li></ul><ul><li>In dreams, this expression is archetypal and analogical. </li></ul><ul><li>They can give you guidance toward individuation. </li></ul><ul><li>What is the difference in how Freud and Jung would interpret this dream symbol ? </li></ul>
  18. 19. Theories of Dreams <ul><li>Activation-Synthesis Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Dreams are the by-products of the mind’s attempt to make sense of the spontaneous changes in the physiological activity generated by the pons during REM sleep. </li></ul><ul><li>The cerebral cortex is trying to make sense out of the random electrical discharges coming from the brain stem during REM sleep. </li></ul>
  19. 20. Theories of Dreams <ul><li>Neurocognitive (Information Processing)Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Dreams are a “time-out” to decide which information dealt with during the day should be filed in LTM. </li></ul><ul><li>Support comes from brain scans & through interfering with REM sleep. </li></ul><ul><li>Disrupting REM sleep disrupts the memory & newly learned material. </li></ul><ul><li>Scans show that specific areas active during learning are also active during dreams. </li></ul>
  20. 21. Theories of Dreams <ul><li>Emotional Processing Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Dreams integrate emotionally significant material into previous experiences. </li></ul><ul><li>We work through emotional problems during dreaming. </li></ul><ul><li>Dreams are an extension of our waking life & deal with conscious concerns. </li></ul><ul><li>The limbic system is highly active during dreaming. </li></ul><ul><li>Comparing Dream Theories </li></ul>
  21. 22. Hypnosis <ul><li>What is hypnosis? </li></ul><ul><li>An altered state of consciousness with heightened suggestibility. </li></ul><ul><li>Mesmer & animal magnetism. </li></ul><ul><li>It is NOT a state of sleep. </li></ul><ul><li>The EEG pattern is the same as being awake. </li></ul><ul><li>The body is relaxed & the mind is alert. </li></ul>
  22. 23. Hypnosis: Theories <ul><li>State Theory (Hilgard) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypnosis causes dissociative state or “split” in awareness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One part that acts as if it is unaware of events </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hidden observer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Detached part of hypnotized person’s awareness that silently observes events </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 24. Hypnosis: Theories <ul><li>Nonstate Theorists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypnosis is a blend of conformity, relaxation, imagination, obedience, and role-playing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suggestions alter sensation, perceptions, thoughts, feelings, behaviors </li></ul></ul>
  24. 25. Hypnotic Induction Procedures <ul><li>Authoritarian </li></ul><ul><li>The hypnotist orders the hypnosis. </li></ul><ul><li>Personality variables are important here. </li></ul><ul><li>Permissive </li></ul><ul><li>Hypnotist lets the subject do what s/he wants to do. </li></ul><ul><li>Wording is very important because the subject takes what is said literally. </li></ul>
  25. 26. Misconceptions about Hypnosis <ul><li>You can be made to do anything the hypnotist wants. </li></ul><ul><li>You’re totally unconscious. </li></ul><ul><li>You’ll fall over because you’re so relaxed. </li></ul><ul><li>You have to be in a really deep state for suggestion to work. </li></ul><ul><li>You can be made to go as deep as the hypnotist wants. </li></ul><ul><li>The hypnotist is in control of you. </li></ul><ul><li>You can be made to act like a chicken. </li></ul><ul><li>If you’re left alone in hypnosis, you’ll be stuck there for the rest of your life. </li></ul><ul><li>The hypnotist basically bores you into hypnosis. </li></ul><ul><li>People who aren’t very bright make the best subject. </li></ul>
  26. 27. Meditation <ul><li>Mental exercise designed to produce relaxation or heightened awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Focuses attention </li></ul><ul><li>Interrupts typical flow of thoughts, worries, and analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Daily use of meditation report less physical tension and anxiety </li></ul>
  27. 28. Meditation <ul><li>What is meditation? </li></ul><ul><li>Directed concentration </li></ul><ul><li>It’s focusing the mind around a single thought, object, or activity producing a state of deep peacefulness combined with a heightened sense of awareness. </li></ul>
  28. 29. Basic Meditation Procedures <ul><li>Structured Meditations </li></ul><ul><li>Carefully defined in all its inner activities & what you’re working toward. </li></ul><ul><li>Lotus Meditation & Breath Counting are examples. </li></ul><ul><li>Unstructured Meditations </li></ul><ul><li>There are different purposes in these meditations. </li></ul><ul><li>You must think about a subject & stay with it & your feelings about it. The purpose is to loosen & free your personality structure in a particular area for growth in that area. </li></ul>
  29. 30. Types of Meditations <ul><li>Path through the Intellect </li></ul><ul><li>You must first reach an intellectual understanding of the Physical & Metaphysical Realities & the ways these Realities perceive & relate to the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Then, through a series of meditations, this understanding is deepened & your personality structure is strengthened. </li></ul><ul><li>Jnana Yoga & Chabad Chasidism </li></ul>
  30. 31. Types of Meditations <ul><li>Path through the Emotions </li></ul><ul><li>The most widely used. </li></ul><ul><li>Structured meditations loosen your feelings & expand your ability to relate to others, to care, & to love. </li></ul><ul><li>The basic theory: the more free, untroubled, & complete you are, the more you have overcome the cultural processes that stunt growth & the better able you are in relating to others. </li></ul><ul><li>You eventually learn there is no separation between yourself and the rest of the universe. </li></ul><ul><li>Christian Monasticism & Bhakti Yoga </li></ul>
  31. 32. Types of Meditations <ul><li>The Path through the Body </li></ul><ul><li>You become aware of your body & bodily movements & heighten this awareness through practice until during the period of meditation, this awareness completely fills your field of consciousness excluding all else. </li></ul><ul><li>Hatha Yoga, T’ai Ch’i, & the Dervish dances of the Sufi </li></ul>
  32. 33. Types of Meditations <ul><li>The Path of Action </li></ul><ul><li>You learn how to “be” & to perceive & to relate to the world during the performance of a particular type of skill. </li></ul><ul><li>The long, hard practices of the discipline strengthens the personality. </li></ul><ul><li>The concentration is on the performance & nothing else. </li></ul><ul><li>The real goal is your growth as a person. </li></ul><ul><li>Zen Archery, Aikido, Karate, & Kung fu </li></ul>
  33. 35. The P l e a s u r e Circuit
  34. 36. The Depressants <ul><li>Alcohol </li></ul><ul><li># 1 Drug problem in the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Binge drinking on campus is a “tradition”. </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy, chronic use harms every organ in the body. </li></ul><ul><li>The leading cause of liver & kidney disease. </li></ul><ul><li>Leads to cardiovascular disease and sexual dysfunction. </li></ul><ul><li>Destroys neurons and can lead to Korsakoff’s Syndrome. </li></ul><ul><li>There are social problems associated with use. </li></ul><ul><li>A complex syndrome combining social, personal, psychological and genetic mechanisms. </li></ul>
  35. 37. SPECT Scan of the Brain
  36. 38. The Depressants <ul><li>Barbiturates </li></ul><ul><li>“ Downers” “Sleeping Pills” </li></ul><ul><li>General effects are similar to alcohol. </li></ul><ul><li>Causes dependence. </li></ul><ul><li>Opiates </li></ul><ul><li>Chemically, they resemble the endorphins. </li></ul><ul><li>Regular use leads to tolerance & can create physical dependence. </li></ul><ul><li>Withdrawals include severe cramps, vomiting, diarrhea, & convulsive kicking. </li></ul>
  37. 39. SPECT Scan of the Brain
  38. 40. The Stimulants <ul><li>Caffeine </li></ul><ul><li>It is natural in coffee, tea, & cocoa, & used in many beverages & OTC medications. </li></ul><ul><li>Maintains wakefulness & alertness but its effects are illusory. </li></ul><ul><li>It interferes with many prescribed medications & aggravates side effects of many psychiatric drugs. </li></ul>
  39. 41. The Stimulants <ul><li>Nicotine </li></ul><ul><li>The most dangerous & addictive drug in use. </li></ul><ul><li>4 ½ times more addicting than heroin. </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical properties similar to cocaine, amphetamines, & morphine . </li></ul><ul><li>Affects the neurotransmitters norepinephrine, dopamine, epinephrine & serotonin. </li></ul><ul><li>Withdrawals can continue for weeks & cravings can occur for months & years. </li></ul>
  40. 42. SPECT Scan of the Brain
  41. 43. The Stimulants <ul><li>Amphetamines </li></ul><ul><li>“ Uppers” </li></ul><ul><li>Resemble epinephrine. </li></ul><ul><li>Relieves fatigue (“pep pill”). </li></ul><ul><li>Suppresses the appetite. </li></ul><ul><li>Increases alertness & gives feelings of competence & well-being. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Crash” produces exhaustion & depression. </li></ul><ul><li>They are habit forming. </li></ul><ul><li>High doses produce personality change, paranoia, homicidal & suicidal thoughts, & violent behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Amphetamine psychosis resembles paranoid schizophrenia. </li></ul>
  42. 44. The Stimulants <ul><li>Methamphetamine is a powerful form of amphetamine. </li></ul><ul><li>Short-term recreational use of methamphetamine destroys dopamine receptors in the brain. </li></ul><ul><li>High doses of methamphetamine damages axon terminals with dopamine & serotonin neurons. </li></ul>
  43. 45. SPECT Scan of the Brain
  44. 46. The Stimulants <ul><li>Cocaine </li></ul><ul><li>Popular at the turn of the 20 th century in many OTC drugs. </li></ul><ul><li>Was cheap & became expensive in the 1970s. </li></ul><ul><li>Blocks the reabsorption of dopamine making the high longer & more intense. </li></ul>
  45. 47. SPECT Scan of the Brain
  46. 48. P s y c h e d e l i c s <ul><li>LSD, psilocybin, mescaline, peyote, & PCP </li></ul><ul><li>Causes shifts in perception. </li></ul><ul><li>Used by shamans in natural forms. </li></ul><ul><li>LSD was synthesized in 1943 from psilocybin. </li></ul><ul><li>Predrug personality is important as to the outcome. </li></ul><ul><li>There are no withdrawals, but a tolerance is built up. </li></ul>
  47. 49. Marijuana <ul><li>Generally classified as an hallucinogen </li></ul><ul><li>Most frequently used illegal drug in the U.S. & 4 th most popular with students. </li></ul><ul><li>Slightly hallucinogenic. </li></ul><ul><li>Taken mainly for its relaxing qualities. </li></ul><ul><li>Has physiological effects & does damage to the respiratory & cardiovascular system. </li></ul><ul><li>It is 16 X more carcinogenic than tobacco . </li></ul>
  48. 50. SPECT Scan of the Brain
  49. 51. E c s t a s y (MDMA) <ul><li>Main Effects: </li></ul><ul><li>Inhibits serotonin reuptake thus </li></ul><ul><li>inducing release of serotonin & </li></ul><ul><li>induces release of dopamine </li></ul><ul><li>Early studies indicated Ecstasy destroyed dopamine receptors. </li></ul><ul><li>Ecstasy actually affects serotonin receptors. </li></ul><ul><li>Not known if the affect is permanent. </li></ul><ul><li>Studies Retracted </li></ul><ul><li>Accidentally, methamphetamine was injected instead of MDMA. </li></ul><ul><li>Most of those who died while on MDMA were also taking other drugs. </li></ul>
  50. 52. Explaining Abuse & Addiction <ul><li>3 Main Factors </li></ul><ul><li>1. Biological Factors </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic predispositions </li></ul><ul><li>Inheritance of personality factors & the body’s ability to tolerate the drug. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Psychological Factors </li></ul><ul><li>Learning processes in the family (e.g. handling of stressful situations). </li></ul><ul><li>Expectations of feeling better. </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes & beliefs about drugs, alcohol, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Socio-culture Factors </li></ul><ul><li>The social & cultural setting itself. </li></ul><ul><li>The culture’s view of certain drugs. </li></ul>
  51. 53. SPECT Scan of the Brain