Swimming Put face down in Makes swimming Disappears after 6 – 7 months
in water movements
Physical Growth & Development
The Cephalocaudal Pattern
The greatest growth always occurs at the top of the head with physical growth in size, weight, and feature differentiation gradually working from top to bottom.
Sensory and motor development proceed according to the cephalocaudal pattern.
The Proximodistal Pattern
Growth starts in the center of the body and moves toward the extremities.
An example is the early maturation of muscular control of the trunk and arms, as compared with that of the hands and fingers.
Newborn Emotional Development
Infants express excitement first
Full range of emotions by age 2
Smiling elicited by social stimuli such a seeing a parent’s face or object of interest
Newborn Social Development
Close emotional bond between infants and caregivers
Sensitive period during first year
Crying and signs of fear when a child is left alone or is with a stranger;
generally appears around 8-12 months
Severe difficulty may be separation anxiety disorder
Newborn Social Development
Attachment Quality (Mary Ainsworth)
Stable and positive emotional bond;
upset by mother’s absence
Tendency to avoid reunion with parent or caregiver
Desire to be with parent or caregiver but some resistance to being reunited
A restrictive, punitive style in which the child must follow instructions and respect work and effort. Unexplained spankings may be frequent in order to enforce rigid rules. Anger may be frequently shown.
Children of authoritarian parenting are unhappy, fearful and anxious when comparing themselves with others. They fail to initiate activities and tend toward social incompetence.
Encouraging, supportive and nurtures the child to be independent but still places limits and controls on actions. Much verbal give-and-take. Expects mature, independent, age-appropriate behavior.
Children are often cheerful, self-controlled, self reliant, achievement oriented and socially competent.
* Permissive Indulgent Parenting :
Highly involved with children with few demands or controls. View is that warm involvement and few restrictions produces a creative, confident child.
Children are socially incompetent, lacking self-control, aggressive, domineering, non-compliant with few peer interactions.
* Permissive Indifferent Parenting :
Parents are very uninvolved with the child.
Children are socially incompetent, lack self-control, don’t handle independence well, have low self-esteem, are immature, and tend to be alienated from the family. As adolescents, they tend to show patterns of delinquency and truancy.
Language is learned through conditioning procedures.
Language is pre-wired in the brain.
There’s a Language Acquisition Device (LAD) already in the brain.
Age Language Milestones
1 – 2 Months Cooing Begins
6 Months Babbling Begins
8 – 12 Months Use Gestures (Showing & Pointing) Comprehension of Words
13 Months First Word Spoken
18 Months Vocabulary Spurt Starts
18 – 24 Months Uses 2 Word Utterances; Rapid Expansion of Understanding of Words
Language Development: Roots of Language
May underestimate importance of learning and social context
Parents teach infants
Cognitive Development: Jean Piaget’s Theory
Proposed that children pass through stages
Based on observations of own kids
Thinking changes through two processes:
Jean Piaget–philosopher, psychologist, and keen observer of children.
Important Concepts: Schema - A mental model of an event, object, or action; a mental map.
Assimilation - Fitting new information into what is already known.
Accommodation - Refining the data into the current schema.