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2011 ch 14
 

2011 ch 14

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This chapter's focus is on Social Psychology. There is discussion of relationships, persuasion, coercion, and other types of social influence. Love and intimate relationships is also included.

This chapter's focus is on Social Psychology. There is discussion of relationships, persuasion, coercion, and other types of social influence. Love and intimate relationships is also included.

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    2011 ch 14 2011 ch 14 Presentation Transcript

    •  
    • Chapter 14: Social Behavior
    • Main Concern of Social Psychologists
      • Human Beings as Social Animals
      • How are the thoughts, feelings, & behaviors of one person influenced by real, imagined, or inferred behaviors of others?
      • Topics Include :
      • Social forces & the perception of people & things
      • The formation & adherence to beliefs and opinions
      • Group behavior
      • Like, dislike, & love
      • Prosocial, antisocial & aggressive behavior
    • Affiliation and Attraction
      • We are social beings with a Need to Affiliate
        • Desire to associate with other people
        • Appears to be a basic human trait
        • Based on desires for approval, support, security, friendship, and information
    • Interpersonal Attraction
      • Social and psychological reasons for attraction
      • Attractors
      • Physical Attractiveness
      • The #1 Attractant
      • The “Halo Effect”
      • Similarity
      • Favor Similarity
      • Incidental Similarities & Assumed Similarities vs. True Similarities
      • Proximity
      • The closer people live together, the better chance of attraction.
      • Exchange
      • We’re attracted to people we get praise from & whom we praise.
      • Intimacy
      • Self-disclosure, Reciprocity, & Trust are important.
    • Liking and Loving
      • Romantic Love
        • Marked by high levels of interpersonal attraction, sexual desire, and heightened arousal
      • Triangular Theory of Love
        • Robert Sternberg
        • Different forms of love arise from different combinations of three components Intimacy:
        • Feelings of connectedness and affection
        • Passion: Deep emotional and/or sexual feelings
        • Commitment: Determination to stay in a long-term relationship with another person
    • Maintaining Relationships
    • Liking and Loving: Evolution and Mate Selection
      • Evolutionary Psychology
        • Study of evolutionary origins of human behavior patterns
        • Belief that evolution influences sexual attraction, jealousy, etc.
    • Liking and Loving: Evolution and Mate Selection
      • Men
        • More interested in causal sex
        • Prefer younger, more physically attractive partners
        • More jealous over sexual infidelities than emotional ones
        • Reproductive success depends on fertility; look for signs of a “fertile” wife
        • Puts resources only in sired children
      • Women
        • Prefer older partners who appear to be industrious, higher in status, or economically successful
        • More jealous over emotional infidelity than sexual ones
        • Place more time and energy into birthing and rearing offspring
        • Certain that male will provide resources
    • Attribution
      • Making judgments about the causes of behavior
      • 2 factors to explain behavior:
      • Internal (personal factors)
      • External (situational factors)
      • 3 kinds of information that help us assign causality:
      • Uniqueness of the circumstances
      • Consistency from situation to situation
      • Others acting the same way
    • Attribution Biases
      • The Correspondence Bias (The Fundamental Attribution Error)
      • Overestimating the dispositional causes of another’s behavior.
      • Failure to take into account the effects of the situation.
      • Another’s behavior is caused by internal factors .
      • The Actor-Observer Bias
      • Tending to explain others’ behavior as having an internal cause while your own has an external cause .
      • Defensive Attribution Bias
      • Your successes are attributed to internal causes , while your failures have an external cause .
      • The “Just World” Hypothesis
      • “ Karma ”
      • Good things happen to good people while bad things happen to bad people.
    • Social Influence: Mere Presence
      • Changes in a person’s behavior induced by the actions of another person
        • Someone else influences your decision: husband, wife, mother, peer, etc.
      • Social Facilitation can occur
        • Tendency to perform better when in the presence of others
      • Social Loafing can also occur
        • Tendency for people to work less hard when part of a group versus when they are solely responsible for their work
    • Conformity
      • The tendency to adjust your behavior to actual or perceived social pressures.
      • This will be done even at the expense of personal preferences.
      • There are subtle pressures to conform in every society or group.
      • Cultural norms will influence conformity.
      • Asch conformity studies.
    • Compliance
      • The Tendency to Accede to the Request or Demands of Others
      • Techniques that Enforce Compliance
      • Foot-in-the-door technique
      • Granting a small request increases the chance of a larger one being granted.
      • Low-ball technique
      • Induce a person to agree to something then raise the cost of the compliance.
      • Door-in-the-face technique
      • If one request is denied, another may be agreed to.
    • Obedience
      • Compliance with commands or orders issued by others, usually persons in a position of authority.
      • Milgram found that people will obey even if it means hurting others.
    • Social Influence: Coercion
      • Being forced to change your beliefs or behave against your will
      • Most extreme form of social influence
      • Requires a captive audience; usually in a controlled setting that allows psychological manipulation
      • Historically, fallen under “thought reform.”
      • Brainwashing
      • Manipulated or forced attitude change requiring a captive audience
      • Begins by making the target person feel helpless
    • Social Influence: Coercion
      • Cults
        • Groups that profess great devotion to a person and follow that person almost without question
        • Leader’s personality is usually more important than the issues he/she preaches
        • Members usually victimized by the leader(s)
      • Cults
        • Recruitment
          • Potential converts targeted at a time of need, especially when a sense of belonging is most attractive
        • Conversion
          • Begins with “love bombing”
          • Isolation
          • Drills, discipline, rituals
          • Use “foot-in-the-door” technique
    • Attitudes
      • Learned evaluative reactions toward something or someone
      • Always involve prejudging
      • 3 Components of an attitude:
      • Thoughts toward the object
      • Feelings about the object
      • Behaviors toward or away from the object
      • What do our attitudes say about this man?
      • Which of the 2 women is the chemical engineer?
    • Attitudes & Behavior
      • Attitude Development
      • Family, peers, the society & its institutions & the media contribute.
      • The relationship between attitudes & behavior is not always direct.
      • Variables & personality traits are always involved.
      • Genetic predispositions may also be involved.
      • Self-monitoring
      • Observing a situation for cues about how to react.
      • High self-monitors may override privately held attitudes with the behavior.
      • The focus is mainly on meeting the demands of the situation
    • Attitudes
      • Three components:
        • Belief Component
          • What a person believes about a particular object or issue
        • Emotional Component
          • Feelings toward the attitudinal object
        • Action Component
          • One’s actions toward various people, objects, or institutions
      Belief Component Emotional Component Action Component
    • Forming Attitudes
      • Attitudes are formed in several ways:
        • Direct Contact
          • Personal experience with the object of the attitude
        • Chance Conditioning
          • Learning that takes place by chance or coincidence
        • Interaction with Others
          • Discussions with people holding a particular attitude
        • Group Membership
          • Groups exert pressures to conform, which shapes our attitudes
        • Child Rearing
          • Effects of parental values, beliefs, and practices
        • Mass Media
          • All media that reach large audiences (magazines, television)
          • Contributes to Mean World View
    • Persuasion
      • The Communication Model of Persuasion
      • 1. The credibility of the source
      • 2. The message
      • 3. The way the message is presented
      • 4. The audience
      • The Process of Persuasion
      • To be persuaded you must:
      • 1. Pay attention to the message;
      • 2. Understand the message;
      • 3. Accept the message.
    • Cognitive Dissonance
      • The unpleasant state when 2 thoughts or a thought & behavior are incongruent.
      • In order to satisfy the emotions, a change must be made in one of the 2.
    • Attitude Change
      • Persuasion is most likely to occur when:
        • The communicator is likable, expressive, trustworthy, and expert on the topic, and similar to the audience in some respect
        • The communicator appears to have nothing to gain if the audience accepts the message
        • The message appeals to emotions, particularly fear or anxiety
        • The message also provides a clear course of action that will reduce fear or produce personally desirable results if followed
        • The message states clear-cut conclusions
        • The message is backed up by facts and statistics
        • The message is repeated as frequently as possible
        • 8. Both sides of an argument are presented to a well-informed audience
        • 9. Only one side of an argument is presented to a poorly informed audience
    • Prejudice & Discrimination
      • Prejudice
      • Unfair, intolerant, or unfavorable attitude toward a group.
      • It is based on assumed differences.
      • Discrimination
      • Unfair behavior toward a group.
      • Discrimination generally follows prejudice .
    • Sources of Prejudice
      • Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis
      • When goals are thwarted, frustration results & anger can become displaced.
      • An Authoritarian Personality
      • They favor rules & tradition & are hostile toward those who defy the norms.
      • Oversimplification or Overgeneralization
      • It’s an attempt to organize social thinking & the social world as much as possible.
      • Psychological
      • Low Self-Esteem
      • Anxiety
      • Insecurity
      • Social
      • Groupthink
      • Conformity
      • Parental Messages
      • Social Messages (Ads, the Media, etc.)
      • Economic
      • Majority’s Desire to Preserve the Status Quo
      • Competition for Jobs, Power, and Resources
      • Cultural
      • Ethnocentricism
      • Desire for Group Identity
      • The Justification for War
    • Sources of Prejudice
      • Racism
      • Viewing certain racial or ethnic groups as innately inferior.
      • Leads to either/or thinking (in-group vs. out-group/us vs. them).
      • Reducing Prejudice
      • The contact hypothesis:
      • Members of opposing groups must have equal status.
      • One-on-one contact is necessary.
      • Cooperation instead of competition.
      • Social norms should encourage contact.
    • Social Action
      • Antisocial Behavior
      • Aggression
      • Direct (expressed) or indirect (repressed)
      • Mob Violence
      • Deindividuation: The anonymity afforded by being stripped of your identity.
      • There is anonymity in a crowd.
    • A Normal Brain
    • Brain of a Violent Person
    • Preventing Aggression
      • Children who are physically abused or punished at home, or who witness violence in their community, are more likely to be aggressive.
      • Children who watch martial arts fights or violent TV programs may increase aggression and have more aggressive thoughts
    • Social Action
      • Prosocial Behavior
      • Altruism
      • Helping that is not motivated by personal gain or notoriety.
      • Anonymity is important.
      • Cultures where individuality is prized, people are less likely to help.
      • The Bystander Effect