2011 ch 14


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This chapter's focus is on Social Psychology. There is discussion of relationships, persuasion, coercion, and other types of social influence. Love and intimate relationships is also included.

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2011 ch 14

  1. 2. Chapter 14: Social Behavior
  2. 3. Main Concern of Social Psychologists <ul><li>Human Beings as Social Animals </li></ul><ul><li>How are the thoughts, feelings, & behaviors of one person influenced by real, imagined, or inferred behaviors of others? </li></ul><ul><li>Topics Include : </li></ul><ul><li>Social forces & the perception of people & things </li></ul><ul><li>The formation & adherence to beliefs and opinions </li></ul><ul><li>Group behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Like, dislike, & love </li></ul><ul><li>Prosocial, antisocial & aggressive behavior </li></ul>
  3. 4. Affiliation and Attraction <ul><li>We are social beings with a Need to Affiliate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Desire to associate with other people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appears to be a basic human trait </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on desires for approval, support, security, friendship, and information </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. Interpersonal Attraction <ul><li>Social and psychological reasons for attraction </li></ul><ul><li>Attractors </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Attractiveness </li></ul><ul><li>The #1 Attractant </li></ul><ul><li>The “Halo Effect” </li></ul><ul><li>Similarity </li></ul><ul><li>Favor Similarity </li></ul><ul><li>Incidental Similarities & Assumed Similarities vs. True Similarities </li></ul><ul><li>Proximity </li></ul><ul><li>The closer people live together, the better chance of attraction. </li></ul><ul><li>Exchange </li></ul><ul><li>We’re attracted to people we get praise from & whom we praise. </li></ul><ul><li>Intimacy </li></ul><ul><li>Self-disclosure, Reciprocity, & Trust are important. </li></ul>
  5. 6. Liking and Loving <ul><li>Romantic Love </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Marked by high levels of interpersonal attraction, sexual desire, and heightened arousal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Triangular Theory of Love </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Robert Sternberg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different forms of love arise from different combinations of three components Intimacy: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feelings of connectedness and affection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Passion: Deep emotional and/or sexual feelings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commitment: Determination to stay in a long-term relationship with another person </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. Maintaining Relationships
  7. 8. Liking and Loving: Evolution and Mate Selection <ul><li>Evolutionary Psychology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Study of evolutionary origins of human behavior patterns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Belief that evolution influences sexual attraction, jealousy, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. Liking and Loving: Evolution and Mate Selection <ul><li>Men </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More interested in causal sex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prefer younger, more physically attractive partners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More jealous over sexual infidelities than emotional ones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reproductive success depends on fertility; look for signs of a “fertile” wife </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Puts resources only in sired children </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Women </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prefer older partners who appear to be industrious, higher in status, or economically successful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More jealous over emotional infidelity than sexual ones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Place more time and energy into birthing and rearing offspring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Certain that male will provide resources </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. Attribution <ul><li>Making judgments about the causes of behavior </li></ul><ul><li>2 factors to explain behavior: </li></ul><ul><li>Internal (personal factors) </li></ul><ul><li>External (situational factors) </li></ul><ul><li>3 kinds of information that help us assign causality: </li></ul><ul><li>Uniqueness of the circumstances </li></ul><ul><li>Consistency from situation to situation </li></ul><ul><li>Others acting the same way </li></ul>
  10. 11. Attribution Biases <ul><li>The Correspondence Bias (The Fundamental Attribution Error) </li></ul><ul><li>Overestimating the dispositional causes of another’s behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Failure to take into account the effects of the situation. </li></ul><ul><li>Another’s behavior is caused by internal factors . </li></ul><ul><li>The Actor-Observer Bias </li></ul><ul><li>Tending to explain others’ behavior as having an internal cause while your own has an external cause . </li></ul><ul><li>Defensive Attribution Bias </li></ul><ul><li>Your successes are attributed to internal causes , while your failures have an external cause . </li></ul><ul><li>The “Just World” Hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>“ Karma ” </li></ul><ul><li>Good things happen to good people while bad things happen to bad people. </li></ul>
  11. 12. Social Influence: Mere Presence <ul><li>Changes in a person’s behavior induced by the actions of another person </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Someone else influences your decision: husband, wife, mother, peer, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social Facilitation can occur </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tendency to perform better when in the presence of others </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social Loafing can also occur </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tendency for people to work less hard when part of a group versus when they are solely responsible for their work </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Conformity <ul><li>The tendency to adjust your behavior to actual or perceived social pressures. </li></ul><ul><li>This will be done even at the expense of personal preferences. </li></ul><ul><li>There are subtle pressures to conform in every society or group. </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural norms will influence conformity. </li></ul><ul><li>Asch conformity studies. </li></ul>
  13. 14. Compliance <ul><li>The Tendency to Accede to the Request or Demands of Others </li></ul><ul><li>Techniques that Enforce Compliance </li></ul><ul><li>Foot-in-the-door technique </li></ul><ul><li>Granting a small request increases the chance of a larger one being granted. </li></ul><ul><li>Low-ball technique </li></ul><ul><li>Induce a person to agree to something then raise the cost of the compliance. </li></ul><ul><li>Door-in-the-face technique </li></ul><ul><li>If one request is denied, another may be agreed to. </li></ul>
  14. 15. Obedience <ul><li>Compliance with commands or orders issued by others, usually persons in a position of authority. </li></ul><ul><li>Milgram found that people will obey even if it means hurting others. </li></ul>
  15. 16. Social Influence: Coercion <ul><li>Being forced to change your beliefs or behave against your will </li></ul><ul><li>Most extreme form of social influence </li></ul><ul><li>Requires a captive audience; usually in a controlled setting that allows psychological manipulation </li></ul><ul><li>Historically, fallen under “thought reform.” </li></ul><ul><li>Brainwashing </li></ul><ul><li>Manipulated or forced attitude change requiring a captive audience </li></ul><ul><li>Begins by making the target person feel helpless </li></ul>
  16. 17. Social Influence: Coercion <ul><li>Cults </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Groups that profess great devotion to a person and follow that person almost without question </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leader’s personality is usually more important than the issues he/she preaches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Members usually victimized by the leader(s) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cults </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recruitment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Potential converts targeted at a time of need, especially when a sense of belonging is most attractive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conversion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Begins with “love bombing” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Isolation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drills, discipline, rituals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use “foot-in-the-door” technique </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 18. Attitudes <ul><li>Learned evaluative reactions toward something or someone </li></ul><ul><li>Always involve prejudging </li></ul><ul><li>3 Components of an attitude: </li></ul><ul><li>Thoughts toward the object </li></ul><ul><li>Feelings about the object </li></ul><ul><li>Behaviors toward or away from the object </li></ul><ul><li>What do our attitudes say about this man? </li></ul><ul><li>Which of the 2 women is the chemical engineer? </li></ul>
  18. 19. Attitudes & Behavior <ul><li>Attitude Development </li></ul><ul><li>Family, peers, the society & its institutions & the media contribute. </li></ul><ul><li>The relationship between attitudes & behavior is not always direct. </li></ul><ul><li>Variables & personality traits are always involved. </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic predispositions may also be involved. </li></ul><ul><li>Self-monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>Observing a situation for cues about how to react. </li></ul><ul><li>High self-monitors may override privately held attitudes with the behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>The focus is mainly on meeting the demands of the situation </li></ul>
  19. 20. Attitudes <ul><li>Three components: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Belief Component </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What a person believes about a particular object or issue </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional Component </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Feelings toward the attitudinal object </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Action Component </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One’s actions toward various people, objects, or institutions </li></ul></ul></ul>Belief Component Emotional Component Action Component
  20. 21. Forming Attitudes <ul><li>Attitudes are formed in several ways: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct Contact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Personal experience with the object of the attitude </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chance Conditioning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Learning that takes place by chance or coincidence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interaction with Others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Discussions with people holding a particular attitude </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Group Membership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Groups exert pressures to conform, which shapes our attitudes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Child Rearing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Effects of parental values, beliefs, and practices </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mass Media </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All media that reach large audiences (magazines, television) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contributes to Mean World View </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 22. Persuasion <ul><li>The Communication Model of Persuasion </li></ul><ul><li>1. The credibility of the source </li></ul><ul><li>2. The message </li></ul><ul><li>3. The way the message is presented </li></ul><ul><li>4. The audience </li></ul><ul><li>The Process of Persuasion </li></ul><ul><li>To be persuaded you must: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Pay attention to the message; </li></ul><ul><li>2. Understand the message; </li></ul><ul><li>3. Accept the message. </li></ul>
  22. 23. Cognitive Dissonance <ul><li>The unpleasant state when 2 thoughts or a thought & behavior are incongruent. </li></ul><ul><li>In order to satisfy the emotions, a change must be made in one of the 2. </li></ul>
  23. 24. Attitude Change <ul><li>Persuasion is most likely to occur when: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The communicator is likable, expressive, trustworthy, and expert on the topic, and similar to the audience in some respect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The communicator appears to have nothing to gain if the audience accepts the message </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The message appeals to emotions, particularly fear or anxiety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The message also provides a clear course of action that will reduce fear or produce personally desirable results if followed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The message states clear-cut conclusions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The message is backed up by facts and statistics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The message is repeated as frequently as possible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8. Both sides of an argument are presented to a well-informed audience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>9. Only one side of an argument is presented to a poorly informed audience </li></ul></ul>
  24. 25. Prejudice & Discrimination <ul><li>Prejudice </li></ul><ul><li>Unfair, intolerant, or unfavorable attitude toward a group. </li></ul><ul><li>It is based on assumed differences. </li></ul><ul><li>Discrimination </li></ul><ul><li>Unfair behavior toward a group. </li></ul><ul><li>Discrimination generally follows prejudice . </li></ul>
  25. 26. Sources of Prejudice <ul><li>Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>When goals are thwarted, frustration results & anger can become displaced. </li></ul><ul><li>An Authoritarian Personality </li></ul><ul><li>They favor rules & tradition & are hostile toward those who defy the norms. </li></ul><ul><li>Oversimplification or Overgeneralization </li></ul><ul><li>It’s an attempt to organize social thinking & the social world as much as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological </li></ul><ul><li>Low Self-Esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>Insecurity </li></ul><ul><li>Social </li></ul><ul><li>Groupthink </li></ul><ul><li>Conformity </li></ul><ul><li>Parental Messages </li></ul><ul><li>Social Messages (Ads, the Media, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Economic </li></ul><ul><li>Majority’s Desire to Preserve the Status Quo </li></ul><ul><li>Competition for Jobs, Power, and Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnocentricism </li></ul><ul><li>Desire for Group Identity </li></ul><ul><li>The Justification for War </li></ul>
  26. 27. Sources of Prejudice <ul><li>Racism </li></ul><ul><li>Viewing certain racial or ethnic groups as innately inferior. </li></ul><ul><li>Leads to either/or thinking (in-group vs. out-group/us vs. them). </li></ul><ul><li>Reducing Prejudice </li></ul><ul><li>The contact hypothesis: </li></ul><ul><li>Members of opposing groups must have equal status. </li></ul><ul><li>One-on-one contact is necessary. </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperation instead of competition. </li></ul><ul><li>Social norms should encourage contact. </li></ul>
  27. 28. Social Action <ul><li>Antisocial Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Aggression </li></ul><ul><li>Direct (expressed) or indirect (repressed) </li></ul><ul><li>Mob Violence </li></ul><ul><li>Deindividuation: The anonymity afforded by being stripped of your identity. </li></ul><ul><li>There is anonymity in a crowd. </li></ul>
  28. 29. A Normal Brain
  29. 30. Brain of a Violent Person
  30. 31. Preventing Aggression <ul><li>Children who are physically abused or punished at home, or who witness violence in their community, are more likely to be aggressive. </li></ul><ul><li>Children who watch martial arts fights or violent TV programs may increase aggression and have more aggressive thoughts </li></ul>
  31. 32. Social Action <ul><li>Prosocial Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Altruism </li></ul><ul><li>Helping that is not motivated by personal gain or notoriety. </li></ul><ul><li>Anonymity is important. </li></ul><ul><li>Cultures where individuality is prized, people are less likely to help. </li></ul><ul><li>The Bystander Effect </li></ul>