Chapter 10: Personality
What is Personality? <ul><li>A general pattern of your behavior, including traits (which characterize you), and modes of a...
Psychology of Personality <ul><li>Character </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal characteristics that have been judged or evalua...
The “Big Five” <ul><li>The Five Factor Model </li></ul><ul><li>Paul Costa, Jr. & Robert McCrae </li></ul><ul><li>Organizes...
 
Psychoanalytic Theory   <ul><li>Psychodynamic theories   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Study personality to learn what drives, con...
Theories of Personality <ul><li>Psychoanalytic Theory of Freud </li></ul><ul><li>Basic Concepts: </li></ul><ul><li>Psychic...
Psychoanalytic Theory:  Dynamics of Personality <ul><li>Levels of Awareness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unconscious </li></ul></...
Psychoanalytic Theory:  Structure of Personality <ul><li>Id </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides energy for the entire psyche </...
Psychoanalytic Theory:  Structure of Personality <ul><li>Ego </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Executive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>di...
Psychoanalytic Theory:  Structure of Personality <ul><li>Superego </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Judge or censor for thoughts and a...
Id  Ego  Superego Id  Ego  Superego
How Personality Develops <ul><li>Stage Description </li></ul><ul><li>Oral Stage Child lives & loves through its mouth. Tak...
Cognitive Social-Learning View <ul><li>Reciprocal Determinism & Expectancies </li></ul><ul><li>Albert Bandura </li></ul><u...
Learning Theories of Personality <ul><li>Behavioral Personality Theory:   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Model of personality that ...
Learning Theories:  How Situations Affect Behavior <ul><li>Behavior is the product of both prior learning and situations  ...
Learning Theories:  Behavioristic View of Development <ul><li>Like Freud, Miller and Dollard agreed first six years were c...
Learning Theories:  Personality and Gender <ul><li>At birth, children are labeled boy or girl, and encouraged to learn sex...
Cognitive Social-Learning View <ul><li>Locus of Control </li></ul><ul><li>Julian Rotter </li></ul><ul><li>Expectancies  – ...
Humanistic Theories of Personality <ul><li>Approach that focuses on human experience, problems, potentials, and ideals </l...
Humanistic Personality Theory <ul><li>Carl Rogers </li></ul><ul><li>Saw humans as innately good with positive strivings to...
Important Concepts <ul><li>Phenomenal field </li></ul><ul><li>Your total experience </li></ul><ul><li>Self </li></ul><ul><...
Assessing Personality
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2011 ch 10

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This chapter looks at the different theories of personality. The role of heredity and environment is reassessed.

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  • Temperament: Hereditary aspects of personality, including sensitivity, moods, irritability, and adaptability
  • Social reinforcement – based on praise, attention, and approval from others
  • 2011 ch 10

    1. 2. Chapter 10: Personality
    2. 3. What is Personality? <ul><li>A general pattern of your behavior, including traits (which characterize you), and modes of adjustment. </li></ul><ul><li>Traits </li></ul><ul><li>Any psychological characteristic you have. </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior patterns that are consistent & characteristic & descriptive of you. </li></ul><ul><li>Your unique pattern of thoughts, feelings, & behavior that continues over time & across situations. </li></ul><ul><li>Included are: perceptual dispositions, consistencies in reactions, values, abilities, motives, defenses, temperament, identity, personal style, thoughts, feelings, & environmental relationships. </li></ul><ul><li>Individual Differences </li></ul><ul><li>A core concept in psychology </li></ul>
    3. 4. Psychology of Personality <ul><li>Character </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal characteristics that have been judged or evaluated </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Personality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A person’s unique and relatively stable behavior patterns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the consistency of who you are, have been, and will become </li></ul></ul>
    4. 5. The “Big Five” <ul><li>The Five Factor Model </li></ul><ul><li>Paul Costa, Jr. & Robert McCrae </li></ul><ul><li>Organizes personality traits into opposing factors and describes differences in personality using five categories. These traits have been see in cultures as widely divergent as American, German, Portuguese, Hebrew, Chinese, Korean, and Japanese. </li></ul><ul><li>Factor Description of Traits </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Extraversion vs. Sociable vs. Withdrawn </li></ul><ul><li>Introversion Fun-loving vs. Sober </li></ul><ul><li>Friendly vs. Aloof </li></ul><ul><li>Adventurous vs. Cautious </li></ul><ul><li>Neuroticism vs. Anxious vs. Relaxed </li></ul><ul><li>Stability Insecure vs. Secure </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional vs. Calm </li></ul><ul><li>Self-pitying vs. Content </li></ul><ul><li>Openness vs. Closed Original vs. Conventional </li></ul><ul><li>To Experience Imaginative vs. Down-to-Earth </li></ul><ul><li>Broad vs. Narrow Interests </li></ul><ul><li>Open vs. Closed to New Ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Agreeableness vs. Good-natured vs. Irritable </li></ul><ul><li>Antagonism Soft-hearted vs. Ruthless </li></ul><ul><li>Courteous vs. Rude </li></ul><ul><li>Sympathetic vs. Tough-minded </li></ul><ul><li>Conscientiousness vs . Well-organized vs. Disorderly </li></ul><ul><li>Undirectedness Dependable vs. Undependable </li></ul><ul><li>Hardworking vs. Lazy </li></ul><ul><li>Ambitious vs. Easygoing </li></ul>
    5. 7. Psychoanalytic Theory <ul><li>Psychodynamic theories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Study personality to learn what drives, conflicts, and energies motivate us. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Believe that actions based on unconscious thoughts, needs, and emotions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Both psychodynamic theories and trait theorists believe human personality is based on biological predispositions </li></ul>
    6. 8. Theories of Personality <ul><li>Psychoanalytic Theory of Freud </li></ul><ul><li>Basic Concepts: </li></ul><ul><li>Psychic Determinism & the Unconscious </li></ul><ul><li>The Structure of the Mind </li></ul><ul><li>The Conscious, the Preconscious, and the Unconscious </li></ul><ul><li>The Structure of Personality </li></ul><ul><li>The Id, Ego, & Superego </li></ul>
    7. 9. Psychoanalytic Theory: Dynamics of Personality <ul><li>Levels of Awareness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unconscious </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Holds repressed memories and emotions and the id’s instinctual drives </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conscious </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Everything you are aware of at a given moment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preconscious </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Material that can easily be brought into awareness </li></ul></ul></ul>
    8. 10. Psychoanalytic Theory: Structure of Personality <ul><li>Id </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides energy for the entire psyche </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Libido </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Comes from Life Instincts (Eros) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Underlies efforts to survive, sexual desires, pleasure seeking </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thanatos </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Comes from death instincts </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Produces aggressive and destructive urges </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    9. 11. Psychoanalytic Theory: Structure of Personality <ul><li>Ego </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Executive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>directs energies supplied by id </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Partially conscious and partially unconscious </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Works on Reality Principle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Delays action until it is practical and/or appropriate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>System of thinking, planning, problem solving, and deciding </li></ul></ul>
    10. 12. Psychoanalytic Theory: Structure of Personality <ul><li>Superego </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Judge or censor for thoughts and actions of the ego </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acts as “internalized parent” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two parts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conscience: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reflects actions for which a person has been punished; source of guilt </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ego Ideal: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reflects behavior one’s parents approved of or rewarded; source of pride </li></ul></ul></ul>
    11. 13. Id Ego Superego Id Ego Superego
    12. 14. How Personality Develops <ul><li>Stage Description </li></ul><ul><li>Oral Stage Child lives & loves through its mouth. Taking </li></ul><ul><li>Birth – 2 yrs. through the mouth is behavioral model for </li></ul><ul><li>aquisitiveness. Holding on is behavioral model for refusal & pessimism. Fixation can lead to excessive smoking. </li></ul><ul><li>Anal Stage Toilet training is important at this time. The </li></ul><ul><li>2 – 3 yrs. manner in which the child is toilet trained is the model for generosity. Child learns to “give” (feces) in order to receive something (approval). Anal Retentive & Anal Expulsive fixations. </li></ul><ul><li>Phallic Stage Male child wishes to control mother & get rid </li></ul><ul><li>3 – 6 yrs. of father (rival). Discovers he has a “special organ.” Assumes all females were castrated. Oedipus complex in males, Electra complex in females. Identifies with the opposite-sex parent to control same-sex parent. Fixation leads to homosexuality. </li></ul><ul><li>Stage Description </li></ul><ul><li>Latency Repression of sexual feelings. Little interest is </li></ul><ul><li>Stage expressed in the opposite sex. Prefers the </li></ul><ul><li>6 -12 yrs. Company of the same sex. Fixation can lead to celibacy. </li></ul><ul><li>Hetero- The repressed feelings for the opposite sex </li></ul><ul><li>sexual or emerge with the natural flow of the hormones. </li></ul><ul><li>Genital The person seeks a mate of the opposite sex </li></ul><ul><li>Stage with which to live. </li></ul><ul><li>12+ yrs. </li></ul>
    13. 15. Cognitive Social-Learning View <ul><li>Reciprocal Determinism & Expectancies </li></ul><ul><li>Albert Bandura </li></ul><ul><li>Reciprocal Determinism – cognitions, behaviors, & environmental factors influence each other. </li></ul><ul><li>Outcome Expectancies – Personal predictions about the outcomes of your behavior. </li></ul>
    14. 16. Learning Theories of Personality <ul><li>Behavioral Personality Theory: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Model of personality that emphasizes learning and observable behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acquired through conditioning principles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Learning Theorists: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Believe that learning shapes our behavior and explains personality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personality comprises learned responses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasize Situational Determinants: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>External conditions that influence behaviors </li></ul></ul></ul>
    15. 17. Learning Theories: How Situations Affect Behavior <ul><li>Behavior is the product of both prior learning and situations </li></ul><ul><li>Personality predicts we will respond fairly consistently to certain types of situations </li></ul>
    16. 18. Learning Theories: Behavioristic View of Development <ul><li>Like Freud, Miller and Dollard agreed first six years were critical </li></ul><ul><li>Time of urgent drives, rewards, punishments, frustrations, and social reinforcement </li></ul>
    17. 19. Learning Theories: Personality and Gender <ul><li>At birth, children are labeled boy or girl, and encouraged to learn sex-appropriate behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Child’s emotional connection to admired adults </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Especially to those providing love and care </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Imitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Desire to act like an admired person with whom one identifies </li></ul></ul></ul>
    18. 20. Cognitive Social-Learning View <ul><li>Locus of Control </li></ul><ul><li>Julian Rotter </li></ul><ul><li>Expectancies – personal predictions about the outcomes of behavior. Expectancies produce effects on behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Subjective Value – the importance you place on desired outcomes. </li></ul><ul><li>Locus of Control – whether your efforts can bring about desired outcomes. Locus of control determines if you feel your decisions, behaviors, etc. are controlled inside or outside of yourself. </li></ul><ul><li>Self-efficacy – expecting that your efforts will be successful. </li></ul>
    19. 21. Humanistic Theories of Personality <ul><li>Approach that focuses on human experience, problems, potentials, and ideals </li></ul><ul><li>Reaction to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rigidity of traits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pessimism of psychoanalytic theory; rejection of the battleground for instincts and unconscious forces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanical nature of learning theory </li></ul></ul>
    20. 22. Humanistic Personality Theory <ul><li>Carl Rogers </li></ul><ul><li>Saw humans as innately good with positive strivings toward self-fulfillment. </li></ul><ul><li>The emphasis is on free-will, self-awareness, & self-growth. </li></ul><ul><li>We all have an innate urge to self-actualize . </li></ul><ul><li>This urge shapes our development. </li></ul><ul><li>We have the potential to become a fully-functioning person. </li></ul>Unconditional Positive Regard
    21. 23. Important Concepts <ul><li>Phenomenal field </li></ul><ul><li>Your total experience </li></ul><ul><li>Self </li></ul><ul><li>The portion of your personality consisting of the perceptions of “I” or “me.” </li></ul><ul><li>Phenomenal self </li></ul><ul><li>Your self-image </li></ul><ul><li>Ideal self </li></ul><ul><li>The kind of person you’d like to be. </li></ul><ul><li>True self </li></ul><ul><li>Who you are with your “ego” stripped away & you’re free to be yourself. </li></ul><ul><li>Unconditional Positive Regard </li></ul><ul><li>Complete & total acceptance of another </li></ul>
    22. 24. Assessing Personality

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