QUALITATIVE<br />RESEARCH<br />
Contrasted with Quantitative Research<br />
Contrasted with Quantitative Research<br />
Why Use Qualitative Methods?<br />To understand human behaviour and behavioural changes<br />To use people’s own words, ex...
The Process<br />
Research Techniques<br />ETHNOGRAPHY<br /> INTERVIEWS<br /> FOCUS GROUPS<br /> NARRATIVES<br /> DOCUMENTS<br /> SAMPLING<b...
Research Techniques<br />Ethnnography<br /><ul><li>The researcher lives and/or works among the group being studied
Started with Cultural Anthropology
Now used in business and other social sciences</li></li></ul><li>Research Techniques<br />1. Interviewing—guidelines<br />...
Ask questions that give you the specific data you need
Make sure the respondent understands each question
Conduct the interviews at a time and place where both the interviewer and the respondent can concentrate</li></li></ul><li...
Specific eligibility criteria for participants
Formal speaking protocol to avoid bias
Questions that encourage a two to three minute thoughtful response or opinion</li></li></ul><li>Research Techniques<br />3...
Use detailed instructions in that pilot  group.
Refine the mechanism and instructions for the actual group</li></li></ul><li>Research Techniques<br />3. Narratives<br />R...
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Qualitative research

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Qualitative research

  1. 1.
  2. 2. QUALITATIVE<br />RESEARCH<br />
  3. 3. Contrasted with Quantitative Research<br />
  4. 4. Contrasted with Quantitative Research<br />
  5. 5. Why Use Qualitative Methods?<br />To understand human behaviour and behavioural changes<br />To use people’s own words, explanations<br />To allow the data to lead to a theory<br />To explore beyond correlation to cause and effect<br />
  6. 6. The Process<br />
  7. 7. Research Techniques<br />ETHNOGRAPHY<br /> INTERVIEWS<br /> FOCUS GROUPS<br /> NARRATIVES<br /> DOCUMENTS<br /> SAMPLING<br />
  8. 8. Research Techniques<br />Ethnnography<br /><ul><li>The researcher lives and/or works among the group being studied
  9. 9. Started with Cultural Anthropology
  10. 10. Now used in business and other social sciences</li></li></ul><li>Research Techniques<br />1. Interviewing—guidelines<br /><ul><li>Sample the correct population
  11. 11. Ask questions that give you the specific data you need
  12. 12. Make sure the respondent understands each question
  13. 13. Conduct the interviews at a time and place where both the interviewer and the respondent can concentrate</li></li></ul><li>Research Techniques<br />2. Focus Groups—need…<br /><ul><li>A skilled moderator who has specific training for conducting focus groups
  14. 14. Specific eligibility criteria for participants
  15. 15. Formal speaking protocol to avoid bias
  16. 16. Questions that encourage a two to three minute thoughtful response or opinion</li></li></ul><li>Research Techniques<br />3. Narratives<br />Record stories. To ensure best results…<br /><ul><li>Pilot a narrative data collection mechanism with the population that specifically interests you.
  17. 17. Use detailed instructions in that pilot group.
  18. 18. Refine the mechanism and instructions for the actual group</li></li></ul><li>Research Techniques<br />3. Narratives<br />Record stories. To ensure best results…<br /><ul><li>Pilot a narrative data collection mechanism with the population that specifically interests you.
  19. 19. Use detailed instructions in that pilot group.
  20. 20. Refine the mechanism and instructions for the actual group</li></li></ul><li>Research Techniques<br />4. Documents<br />“Not prepared at the request of the researcher”<br /><ul><li>Public records (census records, newspapers, court docs, company statements, books, etc.)
  21. 21. Personal documents(diaries, photos, letters, wills, poems, etc.)</li></li></ul><li>Research Techniques<br />5. Sampling<br />The general rule in qualitative research is that you continue to sample until you are not getting any new information or are no longer gaining new insights. (Or until deadlines come up, or funding runs out, etc.)<br />
  22. 22. Techniques of Analysis<br />Content Analysis<br />Grounded Theory<br />Narrative Summary Analyses<br />Triangulation<br />
  23. 23. Validity and Reliability<br />Some difficulties<br /><ul><li>Would people say the same things if asked again to be in a focus group?
  24. 24. How does one account for good or bad days for interviews and narratives?
  25. 25. Generalizability is not the main aim in qualitative research, but validity and reliability can assist in this aim</li></li></ul><li>Which disciplines would you expect to need and make the most use of qualitative research methods?Two Examples…<br />
  26. 26. Which of these qualitative methods might you use? <br />

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