• Are women discriminated? How?
– Vertical; ‘glass ceiling’
– Horizontal; different categories of jobs
– Wage gap
– Working mums’; the children question
• Why? Is it a men’s game or a power-play?
• Is the situation changing?
• Micro-trends etc
• Gender fatigue
<How are women being
discriminated in the workplace?>
are there jobs suitable and un-
suitable for women?
or “men-only” jobs?
“…the most influential people are
mothers. When it comes to wanting to
change their way of life, mothers are
at the front of the line.They are hard
workers often giving everything they
have to give their children a hope of a
better future than what they have
had. Many mothers work numerous
jobs and wake up at the first sign
of daylight to walk miles each day to
fetch water for their families. Women
are often devalueddevalued in many of the
countries where we work and yet they
are many times the backbone of their
“Patriarchy is inherent in
the system of temporary
“Women’s biology, their temperaments and
their unreliability in the face of domestic
commitments all rendered them less desirable
for certain jos – regardless of evidence which
might have indicated to them otherwise. All of
these assumptions about masculinity and
feminity play their part…and help achieve…
the ‘gendering of organisations’.”
Sexual harassment more likely if…
• Working environment is less professional
• You are unmarried
• You are less educated
• You are Malay(!)
• You dress more ‘sexily’
what about work and the family?
how does childcare affect women
There are two kinds of women: the ones
‘committed’ to work (and so do full-time)
and those ‘uncommitted’ to work (and so
prioritize domestic responsibilities.
Childcare is NOT a barrier; many women
simply have different orientations to work
from those of men.
Catherine Hakim (in Giddens, 2001)