Lecture 2

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Lecture 2

  1. 1. 6 Perspectives on Social Theory & Work
  2. 2. ‘Ways’ of Seeing How does discourse and language shape our understanding of an organisaiton? Post-Modernism How do capitalists continually exploit the working class ? Marx How do managers legitimize their power over workers? Weber How do workers make sense of their role in the organisation? Symbolic Interactionism How does an organisation regulate itself and ensure its workers ‘fit in’? Durkheim How can we manage human nature to obtain better workers? Scientific Mgmt / Psychological Humanism
  3. 3. 1a Scientific Management (or Taylorism)
  4. 5. Scientific Management <ul><li>Breaking down of tasks and job fragmentation – “cutting up jobs into smaller and smaller tasks” </li></ul><ul><li>Separation of planning from execution – “don’t think, just work!” </li></ul><ul><li>De-skilling, lower job-learning time, and continual separation of tasks – “the less you do the better” </li></ul>
  5. 9. 1b Psychological Humanism
  6. 12. Comparing Theory X and Y <ul><li>Theory X – people are naturally ‘bad’ (scientific management) </li></ul><ul><li>Theory Y – people are naturally ‘good’ (psychological humanism) </li></ul>Both approaches focusing on managing human nature .
  7. 14. 2. Durkheim & Systems
  8. 17. Suicides <ul><li>Divorced, more than non-divorced </li></ul><ul><li>Protestant more than communal religion </li></ul><ul><li>Single, more than married </li></ul>Suicide often a result of anomie i.e. a LACK of social solidarity.
  9. 18. Weber’s Key Questions <ul><li>What is sociology’s role? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exploring most rational way people and societies can obtain their goals (ends) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explains social action and causal / consequential effects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How is bureacracy created? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protestant ethic brought about rational organisation of labour </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bureacracy is institutionalisation of formal rationality </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How does bureacracy legitimate itself? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the effects of bureaucracy? </li></ul>
  10. 19. <ul><li>Theory of social action </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moral neutrality is worthless to sociology – sociology cannot comment on your values but can prescribe means to attain your ‘ends’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Value orientation is essential: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How ‘behaviour’ becomes ‘action’ – how do derive the meaning of an action? Answer : human rationality. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Formative vs. substantive rationality </li></ul><ul><li>Ideal type </li></ul><ul><li>4 kinds of action </li></ul><ul><li>Power/domination </li></ul><ul><li>Protestant ethic </li></ul><ul><li>Bureaucracy – formal rationality, iron cage, society as machine </li></ul>
  11. 20. The Protestant Ethic
  12. 23. 4 Kinds of Action
  13. 24. Traditional Action
  14. 26. Affective Action
  15. 29. Rational Action
  16. 31. 3 Kinds of Domination
  17. 32. Traditional Authority
  18. 34. Charismatic Authority
  19. 35. WWOD?
  20. 37. Rational-Legal Authority
  21. 38. Lady Justice?
  22. 39. The ‘Iron Cage’

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