Causes of Misunderstanding A) VocabularyExamples:• I’m sorry to destroy your plans.• We shall enlarge our opening times.1) Inappropriate Choice of Words (collocation)
A) VocabularyExamples:• They have to take care of the instructions.• I’m writing on behalf of your letter.• The currant chairman is in the office.• She overlooked the document.2) Wrong Word
A) VocabularyExamples:• The room is crowed.• There is a possibity that the new product will be launched in December.3) Misspelling
B) Awkward Structure• Due to the fact that there are only three staff members present and also because we have made an agreement on a minimum number of attendees we are obliged to call off this meeting and make arrangements for a new meeting next week.1) Lengthy Sentence
B) Awkward StructureExamples:• There will be an exhibition of the work of members in other towns.• Instructions for Visiting Parties.• If he want to reserve a place, he can do it in our car park.2) Ambiguity
B) Awkward StructureExamples:• We can provide you with the information please send us a request via email.• The goods are dispatched this morning, we will call you as soon as we have any updates.• We would like to know what mode of payment you prefer?3) Errors of Punctuation
B) Awkward Structure4) Errors of Grammar• Use of tenses• Capitalization• Use of Articles• Parts of Speech• Use of Modal Verbs• Passive and Active Voice
Causes of Misunderstanding Vocabulary• Inappropriate Choice of Words (collocation)• Wrong Word• Too Specialized• Spelling
Causes of Misunderstanding Awkward Structure• Lengthy Sentence• Ambiguity• Pompous Language• Errors of Punctuation• Errors of Grammar
Exercise1. Most of our costumers are expatriates.2. I’d like to pay your attention to….3. Thank you for your corporation.4. Most of the interrogated people were sent to the main hall.5. I recommend buying a shop in berlin it will prove a good sight.6. The guests had arrived yesterday.7. After a carefully examination…
Business Writing• Precise• Accurate• Clear• Concise• Polite• Easy• Direct
ExerciseWrite an email to your supervisor and make arequest for a one-week leave.• Give at least two reasons for your request.
Emails• Layout –Subject –Greeting, body, closing –White space –Short paragraphs –Bullet points or numbers
Structure of the mail• a) Opening greeting Eg: Dear XYZ• b) Connecting with reader Eg: I got your mail ID from …..• c) Purpose of writing the mail Eg: I would like to esquire about….• d) Giving Good news/bad news; requests; agreeing to requests Eg: Could you help me in….
• e) Taking action Eg: I would check on the point you have brought out.• f) Concluding Eg: We look forward to your support.• g). Closing greeting Eg: Yours sincerely
Most popular sign-offs:Best, Yours, Cordially,Regards, Best regards, Best wishes,Sincerely, Kindest regards, Warmest regards,I remain yours Warmly, Thanks again,truly,My sincere thanks Take care, Continuedfor your time and success,consideration,
Your sign-off isn’t exclusively thewords above your name separated bya comma.Good Job! Keep up the good Happy Holidays! work!All the best of Thank you! Enjoy yoursuccess! weekend!Have a great Thank you for your Hope This Helps!day! quick response.
Key Expressions: Casual FormalPlease get in touch. Please feel free to contact me.I’m not happy. I find it most unsatisfactory [that] + [what you don’t like] e.g. I find it most unsatisfactory that the cable you sent are of poor quality.Thanks for your email Thank you for your email regarding...[what you are thankful for]about… e.g. Thank you for your email regarding the latest updates to our software.Please…+ [request] I would be grateful + if you could + [request] E.g. I would be grateful if you could send me the latest technical manuals.I’m sorry for any problems I would like to apologize for any inconvenience [I may have[that I may have caused caused you.]you]
Casual FormalWe sent your order…+ Your order was dispatched + [when?] + [by whom?][when?] + [by whom?] e.g. Your order was dispatched on Friday by our administrative staff.I’m sorry to tell you… I regret to inform you that… [bad news] E.g. I regret to inform you that our company will be switching to a new supplier.I’m writing to let you I am writing to draw your attention to…[what you need theirknow… attention about] E.g. I am writing to draw your attention to the technical problems we have been experiencing with your software.Goodbyes: Closings:· Cheerful greetings to all · Best regards/wishes· Hugs · Confidently yours· Kind thoughts · Kind regards/wishes· Take care · Many thanks· Wishing you the best · Respectfully yours· Write soon · Warm regards· Your friend · With anticipation· Yours in friendship · Yours respectfully/sincerely/truly
• In case of requests it is better to start with Could or Would rather than please. Eg: Could you send me the document by 5 PM today?• It is better to mention the time frame by which you need something. Eg: Could you send me the document by 5 PM today?• ASAP and EOD are vague terms which have different conclusions for different people.
• Write in a positive tone. – When I complete the assignment versus If I complete the assignment• Avoid using negative words. – Words that begin with “un, non, or ex” or end with “less”• Use smiles :) , winks ;-) and other graphical symbols ONLY when appropriate.• Use contractions to add a friendly tone.
• When you are sending attachments, include in the email the filename, what format it is in, and the version of the program – Attached: “Project3Proposal.doc” This file is in Microsoft Word 2007.
Before hitting “Send”• Check for spelling or Grammar errors (Grammarly).• Double check the attachments.
Sources• Payton, C., 1999. How to Pass English for Business Level 2, LCCI International Examinations Board Guides, London: The book Factory• Purdue OWL Online Writing Lab, from http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/694/1/• Tips to write Formal Emails, from http://www.getsetgrow.org/2009/06/tips-to-write- formal-emails/• Email Sign-off considerations, from http://www.netmanners.com/673/email-sign-off- considerations/