Bus169 Kotler Chapter 09


Published on

Published in: Sports, Business
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • A. screening (there is nothing to screen in the first stage) B. prescreening (no such thing) C. profit estimation (this cannot happen before the idea is generated) D. idea generation is correct. E. idea screening (screening can only happen after there is an idea)
  • E. all of the above is the correct answer. Ideas come from a variety of sources which should all be considered.
  • Figure 9.3 The Product Lifecycle (PLC) pp 314 Figure 9.3 shows a typical product life cycle ‘the course of a product’s sales and profits during its lifetime. It involves five distinct stages: Product development – the company finds and develops a new product idea. Introduction – slow sales growth as the product is introduced into the market. Growth – period of rapid market acceptance and increasing profits. Maturity – slowdown in sales growth because the product has achieved acceptance, profits level off or decline. Decline – period when sales fall off and profits drop.
  • D. growth stage is the correct answer. The competitors would monitor the product introduction and uptake carefully, but would not be overly concerned until sales started to increase. At the growth stage competitors would try to gain or regain their market share and prevent the new product reaching maturity. Commercialisation is not strictly a stage of the PLC but part of the introduction stage.
  • Bus169 Kotler Chapter 09

    1. 1. Principles of Marketing Chapter 9 New Products
    2. 4. <ul><li>BD390, </li></ul><ul><li>streams Netflix movies </li></ul><ul><li>YouTube and CinemaNow for more content, </li></ul><ul><li>built-in Wi-Fi, </li></ul><ul><li>1GB of internal memory </li></ul><ul><li>7.1-channel audio output. </li></ul>
    3. 9. <ul><li>Identify the challenges companies face in creating a new-product development strategy. </li></ul><ul><li>List different sources for ideas generation, and discuss how an idea moves ahead through ideas screening, concept development and concept testing. </li></ul><ul><li>Outline how a potential product advances from a concept to a product through marketing strategy development, business analysis and product development. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the purpose of test marketing, and distinguish between standard, controlled and simulated test markets. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe how marketing strategies change during the product’s life cycle. </li></ul>Chapter Objectives
    4. 10. <ul><li>New to everyone, or to the particular market </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a new invention </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New Category Entries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a new product line for the particular producer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a cookbook from a publisher of business texts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Additions to Product Lines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>line extensions to the firm’s current products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a brewer introducing a low-calorie beer </li></ul></ul></ul>What is a New Product?
    5. 11. Cont’d <ul><li>Product Improvements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>products that, in some way, have been made better </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Could be a mid-life enhancement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Repositioning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>change of image for a product; re-targeted to a new segment or to a new type of usage of the product </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Variations of the above </li></ul><ul><ul><li>new to the country; new to the channel; packaging improvements and different methods of manufacture are NOT usually accepted as ‘new’ products </li></ul></ul>
    6. 12. New-Product Development Strategy <ul><li>Rapid changes in consumer tastes; in technology; and in what competitors do, means that a company cannot rely solely on its existing products </li></ul><ul><li>Customers want and expect the new and improved products that result from market competition </li></ul><ul><li>A company can obtain new products in two ways: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>through acquisition (of a firm, or a product licence) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>through the organisation’s own R and D process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New products are the life blood of a successful firm </li></ul></ul>
    7. 13. New-Product Success / Failure <ul><li>High rate of new product failure </li></ul><ul><li>Recent study indicated that new consumer packaged goods fail at an estimated rate of 80% </li></ul><ul><li>33% of new industrial products fail at launch </li></ul><ul><li>Many reasons why new products fail, including: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>negative perception in market; wrong timing; inadequate market research; poor marketing communications </li></ul></ul>
    8. 14. Cont’d <ul><li>Identify successful products and find out what they have in common </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a superior product </li></ul><ul><li>Have a clearly defined product concept before commencing development </li></ul><ul><li>Provide sufficient budget and support to achieve sales objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure commitment from senior management </li></ul><ul><li>Each company needs to fully understand its consumers; markets; and competitors in order to correctly cost; position; and price the product </li></ul>
    9. 15. The first stage in the new product development process is generally considered to be: <ul><li>screening </li></ul><ul><li>prescreening </li></ul><ul><li>profit estimation </li></ul><ul><li>idea generation </li></ul><ul><li>idea screening </li></ul>
    10. 16. Main steps in N.P.D. Fig. 9.1 Idea Generation Idea Screening Concept Development and Testing Marketing Strategy Business Analysis Product Development Test Marketing Commercialisation
    11. 17. Idea Generation <ul><li>New-product development starts with idea generation - the systematic search for possible new products </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal idea sources: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Formal research and development </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consult company scientists; engineers and product manufacturing staff </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Brainstorm’ new ideas with senior staff </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consult with the company’s salespeople </li></ul></ul></ul>
    12. 18. Cont’d <ul><ul><li>External idea sources : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Com petitors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>D istributors and suppliers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trade magazines; trade shows and seminars; government agencies; new-product consultants; advertising agencies; marketing research firms; commercial laboratories; and research universities </li></ul></ul></ul>
    13. 19. <ul><li>internal sources </li></ul><ul><li>customers </li></ul><ul><li>competitors </li></ul><ul><li>distributors </li></ul><ul><li>all of the above </li></ul>The best new product ideas come from:
    14. 20. Ideas Screening <ul><ul><li>The purpose of this, and the ongoing stages, is to reduce the number of ideas generated. The objective is to spot good ideas and drop inappropriate ones as soon as possible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Product development costs rise significantly in later stages, therefore it is financially important to remove ‘bad’ ideas early. A company wants to go ahead only with those product ideas that will turn into profitable products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most rejections occur at this stage of process </li></ul></ul>
    15. 21. Concept Development / Testing <ul><li>Product Idea </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An idea for a possible product that the company believes it could offer to the market </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Product Concept </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A detailed version of an idea stated in terms that would be meaningful to consumers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Product Image </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The way consumers perceive the potential product </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Concept Testing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The process of testing the product concept with a group of potential target customers </li></ul></ul>
    16. 22. Cont’d <ul><li>This is a process to evaluate the potential success of a new product idea, usually before a prototype has been created. </li></ul><ul><li>Does the basic concept appeal to consumers, and are they likely to buy it? </li></ul>
    17. 23. Marketing Strategy Development <ul><li>The process of designing the initial marketing strategy for the introduction of a new product </li></ul><ul><li>The marketing strategy consists of three parts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describing the target market; the planned product positioning; the projected sales; the market-share and profit goals for the first few years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outlining the product’s projected price; distribution; and marketing budget for the first year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describing the planned long-term sales; profit goals; and marketing-mix strategy </li></ul></ul>
    18. 24. Business Analysis <ul><li>This involves a review of the sales; costs; and profit projections to find out whether or not they satisfy the company’s objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>If they do, the product can then move to the product-development stage. </li></ul><ul><li>The firm would need to consider: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>potential demand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cost and revenue estimates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>level of competition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>likely profitability </li></ul></ul>
    19. 25. Product Development <ul><li>The ‘product concept’ is developed into a physical product (a prototype). To this point, the product has existed only as a word description; a drawing; or perhaps a mock-up. </li></ul><ul><li>The product-development step, however, requires a significant increase in the level of investment. It will show whether the product idea can be turned into a workable product. </li></ul>
    20. 26. <ul><li>The R&D department will develop one or more physical versions of the product concept for testing purposes </li></ul><ul><li>A new product must have the required functional features and convey the intended psychological characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>The current pace of change requires a faster product-development process. Some firms use ‘alliance’ partners to assist </li></ul>Cont’d
    21. 27. Test Marketing <ul><li>If product passes functional and consumer tests, the next step is test marketing </li></ul><ul><li>Test marketing is the limited introduction of the product/ marketing program, to test the reactions of potential customers in a more realistic market setting </li></ul><ul><li>This will enable an evaluation of the ‘mix’, and any alternative strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Select a test market that is most likely to match the buying behaviour of total market </li></ul>
    22. 28. Test Marketing Approaches <ul><li>Standard test markets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These test the new consumer product in situations similar to those it would face in a full-scale launch </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Controlled test markets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Research firms keep ‘controlled’ panels of stores that have agreed to carry new products for a fee </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Simulated test markets (Laboratory situation) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Companies can also test new products in a simulated shopping environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The company, or a research firm, shows a sample of consumers the ads and promotions for a variety of products, including the new product being tested </li></ul></ul>
    23. 29. Test Marketing Business Products <ul><li>B2B marketers use different methods for test marketing their new products </li></ul><ul><li>They may conduct product-use tests, where the industrial marketer selects a small group of potential customers who agree to use the new product for a limited time </li></ul><ul><li>New products can also be tested with large numbers of potential buyers at trade shows </li></ul>
    24. 30. Commercialisation <ul><li>This is the final stage , when a new product is introduced into the market </li></ul><ul><li>The company launching a new product must make four decisions about its intro: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When - economy/ competition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where - how many locations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To whom - early adopters/ opinion leaders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How - appropriate marketing mix </li></ul></ul>
    25. 31. Cont’d <ul><li>Commercialisation of a product will include: </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturing the product and building inventory </li></ul><ul><li>Distributing to locations – warehouses; resellers </li></ul><ul><li>Ongoing training of the sales force </li></ul><ul><li>Trade announcements (PUSH) </li></ul><ul><li>Advertising to potential consumers (PULL) </li></ul><ul><li>This is the most expensive stage of the product development process </li></ul>
    26. 32. Managing New-Product Development <ul><li>New-product development needs to be customer centred, focusing on finding new ways to solve their problems and create more satisfying experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Good product development requires a team-based, total company, cross-functional effort </li></ul><ul><li>Combining a customer-centred focus with a team-based approach can deliver strong results </li></ul><ul><li>Usually, the sooner a new product is ready for the market the better. This will help keep a firm ahead of its competitors </li></ul>
    27. 33. The Product Life Cycle (PLC) <ul><li>A concept that provides a means of tracing the various stages of a product’s acceptance in the market; from its introduction, to its ultimate decline and removal </li></ul>
    28. 34. Cont’d <ul><li>After launching a new product, the firm wants the product to enjoy a long and successful life </li></ul><ul><li>Although it does not expect the product to sell forever, the firm wants to earn enough profit to cover all the effort and risk that went into the product, and to fund future activities </li></ul><ul><li>Each product will have its own distinctive life cycle, although the exact shape and length of that cycle is not known in advance </li></ul>
    29. 35. <ul><li>Product development (Stage 1) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Begins when the company finds and develops a new product idea </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Introduction (Stage 2) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A period of slow sales growth as the product is being introduced to the market </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Growth (Stage 3) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A period of rapid market acceptance and growth in sales volumes </li></ul></ul>Stages of the PLC
    30. 36. Cont’d <ul><li>Maturity (Stage 4) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A period of slowdown in sales growth as the product has already been accepted by a majority of would-be buyers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Decline (Stage 5) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A period of major decline in sales and profits as customers switch to new products </li></ul></ul>
    31. 37. Introductory Stage <ul><li>Low sales, often high failure rates </li></ul><ul><li>Limited level of competition </li></ul><ul><li>Basic product, but may need modification </li></ul><ul><li>Limited distribution of product (selective) </li></ul>
    32. 38. Cont’d <ul><li>High production and marketing costs </li></ul><ul><li>Possible initial monetary loss </li></ul><ul><li>Promotion focused on product awareness and informing the market </li></ul><ul><li>Intensive personal selling to intermediaries </li></ul>
    33. 39. Growth Stage <ul><li>Increasing rate of sales </li></ul><ul><li>Entry of competitors to the market </li></ul><ul><li>Possible market consolidation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(buy-out of smaller firms) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Strong profits, initially </li></ul>
    34. 40. Cont’d <ul><li>Strong brand advertising </li></ul><ul><li>Aim for wider distribution – establish a greater market presence </li></ul><ul><li>Product price usually falls (penetration) </li></ul><ul><li>Recovery of development costs </li></ul>
    35. 41. Maturity Stage <ul><li>Decline in growth of sales </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(sales increase, but at decreasing rate) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Saturated markets </li></ul><ul><li>Extension of product line (attract more </li></ul><ul><li>segments) </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in style rather than in function </li></ul>
    36. 42. Cont’d <ul><li>Heavy promotion to dealers and consumers (encourage brand switch) </li></ul><ul><li>Marginal competitors drop out </li></ul><ul><li> - not profitable </li></ul><ul><li>Prices and profits falling </li></ul><ul><li>Possible Niche marketers </li></ul>
    37. 43. Decline Stage <ul><li>Long-term decline in sales volumes </li></ul><ul><li>May have inventories of unsold goods </li></ul><ul><li>Discontinue non-performing products </li></ul><ul><li>Removal of non-essential marketing expenses (try to maintain profit levels) </li></ul>
    38. 44. Figure 9.2 - Product Life Cycle (PLC)
    39. 45. Variations to the Cycle <ul><li>STYLE </li></ul><ul><li>A style is a basic and distinctive mode of expression. </li></ul><ul><li>Styles can relate to houses (colonial, federation); clothing (formal, casual); art (realistic, abstract). </li></ul><ul><li>Once a style is invented, it can last for generations, coming in and out of favour at various times. </li></ul><ul><li>A style usually has a cycle that shows several periods of renewed interest. </li></ul>
    40. 46. Cont’d <ul><li>FASHION </li></ul><ul><li>A fashion is a currently accepted or popular style in a given field. </li></ul><ul><li>Fashions pass through many stages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First, a small number of consumers take an interest in something new to set themselves apart. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Then, other consumers become interested out of a desire to copy the fashion leaders. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Next, the fashion becomes popular and is adopted by the mass market. </li></ul></ul>
    41. 47. Cont’d <ul><li>FAD </li></ul><ul><li>Fads are fashions that enter a market quickly, are adopted with great enthusiasm, achieve a peak early, and then decline very fast. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Theses types of products usually last for only a short time, and tend to attract a limited number of buyers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fads are often novel or unusual, e.g. Rubik’s Cube; platform shoes; yo-yos. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fads appeal to people looking for excitement, for a way to set themselves apart, or for something to talk about to others. </li></ul></ul>
    42. 48. Figure 9.3 -Fashion, Style and Fad
    43. 49. PLC Concept: Application <ul><li>The PLC concept can be applied by marketers as a useful framework for describing how products and markets perform over time </li></ul><ul><li>However, using the PLC concept for forecasting product performance, or for developing marketing strategies, can present some practical problems </li></ul><ul><li>Managers may have difficulty in identifying which stage of the PLC the product is in; pinpointing when a product moves from one stage to the next; and determining the factors that influence a product’s advancement through the various stages </li></ul>
    44. 50. Cont’d <ul><ul><li>In practice, it is difficult to forecast the sales level at each stage; the length of each stage; and the shape of the curve . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>However, when used carefully, the PLC concept can help a firm in developing appropriate marketing strategies for different stages of the product life cycle . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This would include adjustments to the Mix </li></ul></ul>
    45. 51. Attempts to influence <ul><li>Taking steps to cope with PLC changes through: </li></ul><ul><li>Market Modification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>increase usage by current users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>find new users/ segments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Product Modification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>change characteristics/ quality/ features of product </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Marketing-mix Modification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>change the other Mix elements </li></ul></ul>
    46. 52. PLC Summary - Table 9.5
    47. 53. <ul><li>introduction stage </li></ul><ul><li>maturity stage </li></ul><ul><li>commercialisation stage </li></ul><ul><li>growth stage </li></ul><ul><li>decline stage </li></ul>The Alpha Corporation is just beginning to experience new competitors attempting to draw sales from its latest new product Alpha's product is probably entering its: