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Acids, Bases,
& Salts
Name - Alwin M Reji
Class – X
Roll - 8
What is an ACID?
• pH less than 7
• Neutralizes bases
+
• Forms H ions in solution
• Corrosive-reacts with most
metals to ...
Acids Generate Ions
HNO3 + H2O

 H 3 O+

+ NO3
Common Acids
• HCl- hydrochloric- stomach acid
• H2SO4- sulfuric acid - car batteries
• HNO3 – nitric acid - explosives
• ...
What is a BASE?
• pH greater than 7
• Feels slippery
• Dissolves fats and oils
• Usually forms OH ions in
solution
• Neutr...
Common Bases
• NaOH- sodium hydroxide (LYE) soaps, drain cleaner
• Mg (OH)2 - magnesium hydroxide-antacids
• Al(OH)3-alumi...
pH Scale
pH of Common Substances

Timberlake, Chemistry 7th Edition, page 335
Reactions with indicators
Indicator

Acid
color

Neutral
color

Base
color

Phenolphthalein Colorless Faint pink Dark pink...
pH paper
• pH paper changes
color to indicate a
specific pH value.
Buffers
• A buffer is a solution that resists changes in
pH when small amounts of acids and bases
are added.
Acids and Bases in Solution
(more
• HCl + H20  H3O + + Clhydronium ions, more acidic)
• NaOH in water  Na+ + OH(more
hyd...
Acid Rain
Pollution in the air (sulfur dioxide, carbon
dioxide, nitrogen dioxide) combines with
water to form various acid...
Rapid changes in pH can kill
fish and other organisms in
lakes and streams.
Soil pH is affected and can
kill
plants
and
cr...
What is a SALT?
• A salt is a neutral substance produced from the
reaction of an acid and a base.
• Composed of the negati...
Neutralization Reaction
• A neutralization reaction is the reaction of
an acid with a base to produce salt and
water.
• Ex...
Acids, bases, & salts
Acids, bases, & salts
Acids, bases, & salts
Acids, bases, & salts
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Acids, bases, & salts

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Transcript of "Acids, bases, & salts"

  1. 1. Acids, Bases, & Salts Name - Alwin M Reji Class – X Roll - 8
  2. 2. What is an ACID? • pH less than 7 • Neutralizes bases + • Forms H ions in solution • Corrosive-reacts with most metals to form hydrogen gas • Good conductors of electricity
  3. 3. Acids Generate Ions HNO3 + H2O  H 3 O+ + NO3
  4. 4. Common Acids • HCl- hydrochloric- stomach acid • H2SO4- sulfuric acid - car batteries • HNO3 – nitric acid - explosives • HC2H3O2- acetic acid - vinegar • H2CO3-carbonic acid – sodas • H3PO4- phosphoric acid -flavorings
  5. 5. What is a BASE? • pH greater than 7 • Feels slippery • Dissolves fats and oils • Usually forms OH ions in solution • Neutralizes acids
  6. 6. Common Bases • NaOH- sodium hydroxide (LYE) soaps, drain cleaner • Mg (OH)2 - magnesium hydroxide-antacids • Al(OH)3-aluminum hydroxide-antacids, deodorants • NH4OH-ammonium hydroxide- “ammonia”
  7. 7. pH Scale
  8. 8. pH of Common Substances Timberlake, Chemistry 7th Edition, page 335
  9. 9. Reactions with indicators Indicator Acid color Neutral color Base color Phenolphthalein Colorless Faint pink Dark pink Bromthymol blue Yellow Green Blue Litmus Red ----- Blue
  10. 10. pH paper • pH paper changes color to indicate a specific pH value.
  11. 11. Buffers • A buffer is a solution that resists changes in pH when small amounts of acids and bases are added.
  12. 12. Acids and Bases in Solution (more • HCl + H20  H3O + + Clhydronium ions, more acidic) • NaOH in water  Na+ + OH(more hydroxide ions, more basic) • NaOH + HCl  NaCl + HOH Acid + Base yields type of salt and water • NH3 + H20  NH4+ + OH- ammonia gas + water yields ammonium and hydroxide ions
  13. 13. Acid Rain Pollution in the air (sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen dioxide) combines with water to form various acids. .
  14. 14. Rapid changes in pH can kill fish and other organisms in lakes and streams. Soil pH is affected and can kill plants and create sinkholes
  15. 15. What is a SALT? • A salt is a neutral substance produced from the reaction of an acid and a base. • Composed of the negative ion of an acid and the positive ion of a base. • One of the products of a Neutralization Reaction • Examples: KCl, MgSO4, Na3PO4
  16. 16. Neutralization Reaction • A neutralization reaction is the reaction of an acid with a base to produce salt and water. • Example H2SO4 + NaOH  NaHSO4 + H2O
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