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43651

  1. 1. Diabetic Ketoacidosis Abdelaziz ElaminAbdelaziz Elamin Professor of Pediatric EndocrinologyProfessor of Pediatric Endocrinology University of Khartoum, SudanUniversity of Khartoum, Sudan
  2. 2. Introduction  DKA is a serious acute complications of Diabetes Mellitus. It carries significant risk of death and/or morbidity especially with delayed treatment.  The prognosis of DKA is worse in the extremes of age, with a mortality rates of 5-10%.  With the new advances of therapy, DKA mortality decreases to > 2%. Before discovery and use of Insulin (1922) the mortality was 100%.
  3. 3. Epidemiology  DKA is reported in 2-5% of known type 1DKA is reported in 2-5% of known type 1 diabetic patients in industrialized countries,diabetic patients in industrialized countries, while it occurs in 35-40% of such patients inwhile it occurs in 35-40% of such patients in Africa.Africa.  DKA at the time of first diagnosis of diabetesDKA at the time of first diagnosis of diabetes mellitus is reported in only 2-3% in westernmellitus is reported in only 2-3% in western Europe, but is seen in 95% of diabetic childrenEurope, but is seen in 95% of diabetic children in Sudan. Similar results were reported fromin Sudan. Similar results were reported from other African countries .other African countries .
  4. 4. Consequences  The latter observation is annoying because itThe latter observation is annoying because it implies the following:implies the following:  The late diagnosis of type 1 diabetes in manyThe late diagnosis of type 1 diabetes in many developing countries particularly in Africa.developing countries particularly in Africa.  The late presentation of DKA, which isThe late presentation of DKA, which is associated with risk of morbidity & mortalityassociated with risk of morbidity & mortality  Death of young children with DKADeath of young children with DKA undiagnosed or wrongly diagnosed as malaria orundiagnosed or wrongly diagnosed as malaria or meningitis.meningitis.
  5. 5. Pathophysiology  Secondary to insulin deficiency, and the action of counter-regulatory hormones, blood glucose increases leading to hyperglycemia and glucosuria. GlucosuriaGlucosuria causes an osmotic diuresis, leading tocauses an osmotic diuresis, leading to water & Na loss.water & Na loss.  In the absence of insulin activity the body fails to utilize glucose as fuel and uses fats instead. This leads to ketosis.
  6. 6. Pathophysiology/2  The excess of ketone bodies will cause metabolic acidosis, the later is also aggravated by Lactic acidosis caused by dehydration & poor tissue perfusion.  Vomiting due to an ileus, plus increased insensible water losses due to tachypnea will worsen the state of dehydration.  Electrolyte abnormalities are 2ry to their loss in urine & trans-membrane alterations following acidosis & osmotic diuresis.
  7. 7. Pathophysiology/3  Because of acidosis, K ions enter the circulation leading to hyperkalemia, this is aggravated by dehydration and renal failure.  So, depending on the duration of DKA, serum K at diagnosis may be high, normal or low, but the intracellular K stores are always depleted.  Phosphate depletion will also take place due to metabolic acidosis.  Na loss occurs secondary to the hyperosmotic state & the osmotic diuresis.
  8. 8. Pathophysiology/4  The dehydration can lead to decreased kidneyThe dehydration can lead to decreased kidney perfusion and acute renal failure.perfusion and acute renal failure.  Accumulation of ketone bodies contributes toAccumulation of ketone bodies contributes to the abdominal pain and vomiting.the abdominal pain and vomiting.  The increasing acidosis leads to acidoticThe increasing acidosis leads to acidotic breathing and acetone smell in the breath andbreathing and acetone smell in the breath and eventually causes impaired consciousness andeventually causes impaired consciousness and coma.coma.
  9. 9. Precipitating Factors  New onset of type 1 DM: 25%  Infections (the most common cause): 40%  Drugs: e.g. Steroids, Thiazides, Dobutamine & Turbutaline.  Omission of Insulin: 20%. This is due to:Omission of Insulin: 20%. This is due to:  Non-availability (poor countries)  fear of hypoglycemiafear of hypoglycemia  rebellion of authorityrebellion of authority  fear of weight gainfear of weight gain  stress of chronic diseasestress of chronic disease
  10. 10. DIAGNOSIS  You should suspect DKA if a diabeticYou should suspect DKA if a diabetic patient presents with:patient presents with:  Dehydration.Dehydration.  Acidotic (Kussmaul’s) breathing, with a fruityAcidotic (Kussmaul’s) breathing, with a fruity smell (acetone).smell (acetone).  Abdominal pain &or distension.Abdominal pain &or distension.  Vomiting.Vomiting.  An altered mental status ranging fromAn altered mental status ranging from disorientation to coma.disorientation to coma.
  11. 11. DIAGNOSIS/2 To diagnose DKA, the following criteria must be fulfilled : 1. Hyperglycemia: of > 300 mg/dl & glucosuria 2. Ketonemia and ketonuria 3. Metabolic acidosis: pH < 7.25, serum bicarbonate < 15 mmol/l. Anion gap >10. Anion gap= [Na]+[K] – [Cl]+[HCO3]. This is usually accompanied with severe dehydration and electrolyte imbalance.
  12. 12. Management The management steps of DKA includes:  Assessment of causes & sequele of DKA by taking a short history & performing a scan examination.  Quick diagnosis of DKA at the ER.  Baseline investigations.  Treatment, Monitoring & avoiding complications.  Transition to outpatient management..
  13. 13. Assessment  History: Symptoms of hyperglycemia, precipitating factors , diet and insulin dose.  Examination:  Look for signs of dehydration, acidosis, and electrolytes imbalance, including shock, hypotension, acidotic breathing, CNS status…etc.  Look for signs of hidden infections (Fever strongly suggests infection) and If possible, obtain accurate weight before starting treatment.
  14. 14. Quick Diagnosis  Known diabetic children confirm DKnown diabetic children confirm D hyperglycemia, K ketonuria & A acidosis.hyperglycemia, K ketonuria & A acidosis.  Newly diagnosed diabetic children be careful notNewly diagnosed diabetic children be careful not to miss because it may mimic serious infectionsto miss because it may mimic serious infections like meningitis.like meningitis.  BothBoth Hyperglycemia (using glucometer)Hyperglycemia (using glucometer) glycosuria, & ketonuria (with strips) must be doneglycosuria, & ketonuria (with strips) must be done in the ER and treatment started, without waitingin the ER and treatment started, without waiting for Lab results which may be delayed.for Lab results which may be delayed.
  15. 15. Baseline Investigations The initial Lab evaluation includes:The initial Lab evaluation includes:  Plasma & urine levels of glucose & ketones.Plasma & urine levels of glucose & ketones.  ABG, U&E (including Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, PO4,ABG, U&E (including Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, PO4, HCO3), & arterial pH (with calculated anion gap).HCO3), & arterial pH (with calculated anion gap).  Venous pH is as accurate as arterial (an error ofVenous pH is as accurate as arterial (an error of 0.025 less than arterial pH)0.025 less than arterial pH)  Complete Blood Count with differential.Complete Blood Count with differential.  Further tests e.g., cultures, X-rays…etc , are doneFurther tests e.g., cultures, X-rays…etc , are done when needed.when needed.
  16. 16. Pitfalls in DKA  High WCC: may be seen in the absence of: may be seen in the absence of infections.infections.  BUN: may be elevated with prerenal azotemiamay be elevated with prerenal azotemia secondary to dehydration.secondary to dehydration.  Creatinine: some assays may cross-react withsome assays may cross-react with ketone bodies, so it may not reflect true renalketone bodies, so it may not reflect true renal function.function.  Serum Amylase: is often raised, & when there isSerum Amylase: is often raised, & when there is abdominal pain, a diagnosis of pancreatitis mayabdominal pain, a diagnosis of pancreatitis may mistakenly be made.mistakenly be made.
  17. 17. Treatment Principles of Treatment:  Careful replacement of fluid deficits.  Correction of acidosis & hyperglycemia via Insulin administration.  Correction of electrolytes imbalance.  Treatment of underlying cause.  Monitoring for complications of treatment.  Manage DKA in the PICU. If not available it can be managed in the special care room of the pediatric inpatient ward.
  18. 18. Fluids replacement  Determine hydration statusDetermine hydration status:: A.A. Hypovolemic shock:Hypovolemic shock: administer 0.9% saline, Ringer’s lactate or a plasmaadminister 0.9% saline, Ringer’s lactate or a plasma expander as a bolus dose of 20-30 ml/kg. This canexpander as a bolus dose of 20-30 ml/kg. This can be repeated if the state of shock persists.be repeated if the state of shock persists. Once theOnce the patient is out of shock, you go to the 2patient is out of shock, you go to the 2ndnd step ofstep of management.management.
  19. 19. Fluids replacement/2 B- Dehydration without shock:B- Dehydration without shock: 1.1. Administer 0.9% Saline 10 ml/kg/hour for anAdminister 0.9% Saline 10 ml/kg/hour for an initial hour, to restore blood volume and renalinitial hour, to restore blood volume and renal perfusion.perfusion. 2.2. The remaining deficit should be added to theThe remaining deficit should be added to the maintenance, & the total being replaced over 36-maintenance, & the total being replaced over 36- 48 hours. To avoid rapid shifts in serum48 hours. To avoid rapid shifts in serum osmolality 0.9% Saline can be used for the initialosmolality 0.9% Saline can be used for the initial 4-6 hours, followed by 0.45% saline.4-6 hours, followed by 0.45% saline.
  20. 20. Fluids replacement/3  When serum glucose reaches 250mg/dl change fluid to 5% dextrose with 0.45 saline, at a rate that allow complete restoration in 48 hours, & to maintain glucose at 150- 250mg/dl.  Pediatric saline 0.18% Na Cl should not be used even in young children.
  21. 21. Insulin Therapy  start infusing regular insulin at a rate of 0.1U/kg/hour using a syringe pump. Optimally, serum glucose should decrease in a rate no faster than 100mg/dl/hour.  If serum glucose falls < 200 prior to correction of acidosis, change IV fluid from D5 to D10, but don’t decrease the rate of insulin infusion.  The use of initial bolus of insulin (IV/IM) is controversial.
  22. 22. Insulin Therapy/2 Continue the Insulin infusion until acidosis isContinue the Insulin infusion until acidosis is cleared:cleared:  pH > 7.3.pH > 7.3.  Bicarbonate > 15 mmol/lBicarbonate > 15 mmol/l  Normal anion gap 10-12.Normal anion gap 10-12.
  23. 23. Correction of Acidosis  Insulin therapy stops lipolysis andInsulin therapy stops lipolysis and promotes the metabolism of ketone bodies.promotes the metabolism of ketone bodies. This together with correction of dehydrationThis together with correction of dehydration normalize the blood PH.normalize the blood PH.  Bicarbonate therapy should not be used unless severe acidosis (pH<7.0) results in hemodynamic instability. If it must be given, it must infused slowly over several hours.  As acidosis is corrected, urine KB appear to rise.As acidosis is corrected, urine KB appear to rise. Urine KB are not of prognostic value in DKA.Urine KB are not of prognostic value in DKA.
  24. 24. Insulin Therapy/3  If no adequate settings (i.e. no infusion or syringe pumps & no ICU care which is the usual situation in many developing countries) Give regular Insulin 0.1 U/kg/hour IM till acidosis disappears and blood glucose drops to <250 mg/dl, then us SC insulin in a dose of 0.25 U/kg every 4 hours.  When patient is out of DKA return to the previous insulin dose.
  25. 25. Correction of Electrolyte Imbalance  Regardless of K conc. at presentation, total body KRegardless of K conc. at presentation, total body K is low. So, as soon as the urine output is restored,is low. So, as soon as the urine output is restored, potassium supplementation must be added to IVpotassium supplementation must be added to IV fluid at a conc.fluid at a conc. of 20-40 mmol/l, where 50% of it given as KCl, & the rest as potassium phosphate, this will provide phosphate for replacement, & avoids excess phosphate (may precipitate(may precipitate hypocalcaemia) & excess Cl (may precipitatehypocalcaemia) & excess Cl (may precipitate cerebral edema or adds to acidosis).cerebral edema or adds to acidosis).
  26. 26. Potassium  If K conc. < 2.5, administer 1mmol/kg ofIf K conc. < 2.5, administer 1mmol/kg of KCl in IV saline over 1 hour. WithholdKCl in IV saline over 1 hour. Withhold Insulin until K conc. becomes> 2.5 andInsulin until K conc. becomes> 2.5 and monitor K conc. hourly.monitor K conc. hourly.  If serum potassium is 6 or more, do not giveIf serum potassium is 6 or more, do not give potassium till you check renal function andpotassium till you check renal function and patients passes adequate urine.patients passes adequate urine.
  27. 27. Monitoring A flow chart must be used to monitor fluid balance & Lab measures.  serum glucose must be measured hourly.  electrolytes also 2-3 hourly.  Ca, Mg, & phosphate must be measured initially & at least once during therapy.  Neurological & mental state must examined frequently, & any complaints of headache or deterioration of mental status should prompt rapid evaluation for possible cerebral edema.
  28. 28. Complications  Cerebral Edema  Intracranial thrombosis or infarction.  Acute tubular necrosis.  peripheral edema.
  29. 29. Cerebral Edema  Clinically apparent Cerebral edema occurs in 1-2%Clinically apparent Cerebral edema occurs in 1-2% of children with DKA. It is a serious complicationof children with DKA. It is a serious complication with a mortality of > 70%. Only 15% recoverwith a mortality of > 70%. Only 15% recover without permanent damage.without permanent damage.  Typically it takes place 6-10 hours after initiation ofTypically it takes place 6-10 hours after initiation of treatment, often following a period of clinicaltreatment, often following a period of clinical improvement.improvement.
  30. 30. Causes of Cerebral Edema The mechanism of CE is not fully understood, but many factors have been implicated:  rapid and/or sharp decline in serum osmolality with treatment.  high initial corrected serum Na concentration.  high initial serum glucose concentration.  longer duration of symptoms prior to initiation of treatment.  younger age.  failure of serum Na to raise as serum glucose falls during treatment.
  31. 31. Presentations of C. Edema Cerebral Edema Presentations include:  deterioration of level of consciousness.  lethargy & decrease in arousal.  headache & pupillary changes.  seizures & incontinence.  bradycardia. & respiratory arrest when brain stem herniation takes place.
  32. 32. Treatment of C. Edema  Reduce IV fluidsReduce IV fluids  Raise foot of BedRaise foot of Bed  IV MannitolIV Mannitol  Elective VentilationElective Ventilation  Dialysis if associated with fluid overload or renalDialysis if associated with fluid overload or renal failure.failure.  Use of IV dexamethasone is not recommended.Use of IV dexamethasone is not recommended.
  33. 33. The End

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