Introduction• This style appeared during the Middle Ages• It is the first style that can be found all over Europe,• The expansion of the style was linked to the pilgrimages, mainly to Santiago di Compastela.
Introduction• Romanesque art developed because of… – The end of Barbarian invasions – The decomposition of Cordoba’s government – The establishment of peace in the Christian world, with the development of the cities, commerce and industry.
Expansion• The factors of the expansion of Romanesque art were: – Development of a feudal system, that demanded works (castles) – The expansion of religious orders (Benedictines), developed the monasteries – The pilgrimage routes – The crusades
Typologies• There are three main types of buildings: Monasteries Castles Churches
Monastery• It was designed as the “City of God”• They had several functional areas: – Church – Cloister – Chapter room – Abbot’s house – Monks/ nuns rooms – Refectory – Hospital
Church• It was the main building• It symbolized God’s kingdom• The holiest part was the apse• It had cross shape• Symbolism was important: – Circular parts reflect perfection so they were linked to God – Squared parts are related to the human.
Church• Characteristics: – Monumental, trying to imitate the Roman models in the Pilgrimage churches – Small in country churches – They were designed for advertising Catholic church – They were lasting, made of stone – Plans could be: • Latin cross • Polygonal • Basilical Latin cross Polygonal Basilical
Church• Elevation:• The church is covered by stoned vaults• Wall are thick• They need strong buttresses• Foundations are strong• Few windows
Church Clerestory • Interior elevation: it consists of three levels: • First floor with columns or cross-shaped pillarsTribune • Second floor with the tribune (corridor over looking the nave, over the aisles) • Clerestory: area of Pillar windows opening to the Column outside.
Church• Type of covers: Barrel vault: it was used mainly to cover the central nave Groin vault was common in aisles and ambulatory Dome: spherical were used in apses. The central could stand on pendentives or squinches
Romanesque in France• It was the original region of Romanesque art• It appeared in Cluny’s abbey• From there it expanded thanks to the pilgrimage routes, specially to Santiago in Spain.
Romanesque in France • Burgundy: barrel-Cluny vaulted, three-aisled basilica • Normandy: Lombard influences with groined vaults supported by flying buttresses and façades with two flanking towers. Sainte Magdalene, Vezelay
Romanesque in France• It is characterized by various vaulted styles• Provence: pointed domes Saint and façades decorated Trophime , Arles with arches• Auvergne with long choir, side aisles around the semicircular sanctuary forming the ambulatory in which radiating chapels Saint Sernin open Toulouse
Romanesque in Italy• Italian provinces developed a great diversity of architectural styles – Lombardy with groined vaults of heavy proportions Saint Ambroggio, Milan – Central Italy classical decorative elements: Corinthian capitals, coloured marble, open arches, colonnades and galleries and façades with sculptures Saint Miniato, Florence
Romanesque in Italy – South with Byzantine and Arabic influence using mosaics, interlaced pointed-Cefalu, Sicily arches.
Romanesque in Italy – South with Byzantine and Arabic influences, using mosaics, interlaced pointed-Cefalu, Sicily arches. • Three separate buildings: church, baptistery and bell tower. Pisa Cathedral, in Tuscany, presents three separate buildings.
Romanesque in Germany• Churches were planned on a large scale• They used to be very high• They had an apse or sanctuary at each end.• Numerous round or octagonal towers that conferred them a picturesque silhouette. Worms
Romanesque in England • Long, narrow buildings were constructed with heavy walls and piers, rectangular apses, double transepts and deeply recessed portals • Naves were covered with flat roofs, later replaces by vaults, and side aisles were covered with groined vaults.
Romanesque in England• Before the 10th century were made of wood• Stone buildings were small and roughly constructed• The Norman Romanesque style replace the Saxon in 11th century
Romanesque in Spain• First Romanesque: Catalonia• In the 11th century the region was almost assimilated to France• Due to this they receive the art early• The rest of the Spain would receive it with the pilgrimage
Romanesque in Spain • Catalan churches present, in the outside, ordered volumes • Wall are decorated with Lombard bands, and blind arches and galleries • The plan has three naves, with a small narthex • The head has triple apse
Romanesque in Spain• There are polygonal buildings too• They are related to the Temple• They are inspired in Jerusalem’s Holy Sepulchre• Examples are Eunate, Torres del Rio (both in Navarre) and Veracruz (Segovia).
Romanesque in Spain • Castile and Leon: • It is deeply influenced by the pilgrimage routes • The churches are identified with the spirit of the Reconquist
Romanesque in Spain• Buildings are simple and small• It created a contrast in relation to the refined Hispano Muslin architecture.• They frequently have a covered area in the outside for the meetings of the councils.
Romanesque in Spain • The best examples are: – Santiago’s cathedral – Fromista – Sant Climent de Tahull – San Pere de Roda – San Juan de la Peña • There are other buildings such as castles (Loarre, in Huesca) or bridges, essential for pilgrims (Puentelarreina, Navarre)