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  • 1. Roman Technology Why was the pax romanaconsidered a golden age?
  • 2. The pax romana – or roman peacebegan with the reign of augustus caesarand lasted for 200 years.During this time, the Romans made greatstrides in technology andinfrastructure.Roman technology can be found todayfrom north Africa to England.
  • 3. Roman Architecture The Pantheon is a circular building with a great concrete dome rising from the walls and with a front porch of Corinthian columns supporting a gabled roof with a triangular pediment. The Pantheon is remarkable for its size, its construction, and its design. The dome was the largest built until modern times, measuring about 142 feet in diameter and rising to a height of 71 feet above its base. There is no external evidence of brick arch support inside the dome, except in the lowest part, and the exact method of construction has never been determined. The Coliseum (Coloseum, Colosseum), was built during the reign of Emperor Vespasiano c. 72 AD Over 160 ft high with eighty entrances, the Coliseum could hold upwards of 50,000 spectators. Public events such asgladiator fights, mock naval battles and wild animal hunts were held at the Coliseum. During the staged fights asmany as 10,000 people were killed. Fighters were slaves, prisoners or volunteers. Spectators saw persecuted Christians killed by lions.
  • 4. The dome
  • 5. The dome meantbigger buildingscould be builtwhich were saferand did not needthick walls orlarge numbers ofpillars to supportthe ceiling.This piece oftechnology will belost to medievalEuropeans.
  • 6. Inside the pantheon in Rome.
  • 7. Colosseums
  • 8. Colosseum in nimes in France
  • 9. Roman Colosseum in Croatia
  • 10. Under the floor were cages and cells for animals gladiators and Christians.
  • 11. Roman Roads The Romans builT many Roads ThRoughouT TheiR empiRe. The Roadsmade iT easieR To TRavel and TRade wiTh faRaway pRovinces. iT also made iT easieR To collecT Taxes. Roman Roads weRe sTRaighT andfollowed an exacT design. The expRession, “all Roads lead To Rome”RefeRs To The facT ThaT Rome was The cenTeR of modeRn civilizaTion. The Road sysTem of The ancienT Romans was one of The gReaTesT engineeRing accomplishmenTs of iTs Time, wiTh oveR 50,000 miles of paved Road RadiaTing fRom TheiR cenTeR aT The miliaRius auRem in The foRum in The ciTy of Rome.
  • 12. Roman roads
  • 13. Paved Roads• The roads were not completely flat• They consisted of several parts – The central and highest was the most important, it was convex to conduct the water to the – Ditches that were built in the sides
  • 14. Roman AqueductsThe Romans consTRucTed numeRous aqueducTs To supply waTeR To ciTies and indusTRial siTes. The ciTy of Rome iTself had The laRgesT concenTRaTion, wiTh waTeR being supplied by eleven aqueducTs consTRucTed oveR a peRiod of 500 yeaRs. TheiR combined lengTh was neaRly 260 miles. howeveR, only 29 miles weRe above gRound, as mosT Roman aqueducTs weRe consTRucTed below The suRface. sTone "pipes" ThaT caRRied waTeR fRom ouTlying aReas To laRge ciTies. why weRe They so Tall and TilTed? They had To caRRy RainwaTeR and waTeR fRom higheR alTiTudes downwaRd To ReseRvoiRs in laRge ciTies. The picTuRes ThaT we noRmally see aRe of aqueducTs above gRound, buT mosT of Them weRe undeRgRound. They also builT public laTRines and sysTems of sewage pipes To caRRy sewage ouT of The sTReeTs and dump iT inTo The RiveR.
  • 15. Water technologyThe civilizations we have looked at so far, haveall been located near rivers. Needless to say,your largest cities and towns were locatedon the waterfront.The Romans developed sophisticatedtechnology to move water over greatdistances. For the first time in human historypeople were able to live in large numbers faraway from natural water sources.
  • 16. Aqueducts• Aqueducts were built in order to avoid geographic irregularities between fountains or rivers and towns.• Not only valleys were crossed by superposed cannels, but also mountains were excavated by long tunnels, pits and levels of maintenance.• They were used to bring water to cities.
  • 17. aqueducts
  • 18. Model of Romes main aqueducts
  • 19. Civil Buildings: Baths • There were spaces for public life • They consisted of different rooms: • Changing rooms – Different temperature rooms: • Frigidarium (cold) • Tepidarium (warm) • Caldarium (hot) – Swimming pool – Gymnasium – Library
  • 20. Roman baths (England)
  • 21. Roman baths were built all over theempire.The city of bath in England is sonamed because it had a large romanbath there.The Turkish baths are the directdescendents of the Roman baths.The upper classes would meet therein the afternoon to swim, relax, get amassage and conduct business.
  • 22. Notice the channels under the floors used to heat the bath water.
  • 23. Plumbing and sewer systems• Roman cities has indoor plumbing andsewer systems.•This allowed the Roman cities to stayvery clean by ancient standards andcertainly much cleaner than medievalcities in Western Europe.• People had access to fresh water fordrinking and cooking and…
  • 24. Most important of all, flushing toilets!!
  • 25. These were public toiletsand the watercontinually flowedunderneath.The wealthy had toiletsyou could flush by liftinga piece of wood thatblocked the sluice.
  • 26. Hypothetical reconstruction of Roman Forum in Imperial times. Watercolor (18th century), Giuseppe Becchetti