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Lab Practical Iii Lab Practical Iii Presentation Transcript

  • Lab Practical III Study Guide Nov. 15, 2009
  • FYI. This ppt. contains extra stuff that you don’t need to know on the practical. But it might help if you remember all of them. =) References: GOOGLE.
  • Sheep heart1. right atrium 2. right ventricle 3. left atrium 4. left ventricle 5. rigt/left auricles 6. precava 7. postcava 8. pulmonary trunk 9. aorta 10. pulmonary veins 11. innominate or brachiocephalic artery 12. left sublclavian artery 13. ligamentum arteriosum 14. coronary arteries 15. apex 16. interventricular septum 17. bicuspid valve 18. chordae tendineae 19. papillary muscles 20. trabeculae carnae 21. aortic semilunar valve
  • Sheep heart1. right atrium 2. right ventricle 3. right auricle 4. musculi pectinati 5. opening to vena cava 6. coronary sinus 7. fossa ovalis 8. cusps of tricuspid valve 9. chordae tendineae 10. papillary muscles 11. pulmonary artery 12. aorta 13. innominate or brachiocephalic artery 14. trabeculae carnae 15. left ventricle 16. interventricular septum 17. bicuspid valve 18. pulmonary semilunar valve
  • Cornea. Aqueous Humor
  • Retina Iris
  • Lens Vitrous Humor
  • Choroids Retina Tapetum Retina
  • Fig. 12.24
  • Sheep Brain Dissection
  • 1.CerebellumFalx Cerebri (Dura Mater Shield)3. Cerebral Gyrus4.Arachnoid Mater5.Cerebral Sulcus6.Olfactory Bulb (I)7.Optic Nerve (II) 8a.Trigeminal Nerve (V) - Opthalmic Branch8b.Trigeminal Nerve (V) - Maxillary Branch8c.Trigeminal Nerve (V) - Mandibular Branch9.Abducens Nerve (VI)10.Trochlear Nerve (IV)11.Hypoglossal Nerve (XII)12.Spinal Accessory Nerve (XI)
  • 1. Spinal Cord 2. Cerebellum 3. Arbor Vitae 4.Inferior Colliculus 5.Superior Colliculus 6.Pineal Gland 7.Cerebrum 8. Fornix 9. Corpus Callosum 10 .Lateral Ventricle 11 .Olfactory Bulb 12. Optic Chiasm 13 .Intermediate Mass (Thalamus) 14 .Pituitary Gland 15 .Third Ventricle 16.Pons 17.Cerebral Aqueduct of Sylvius 18.Fourth Ventricle 19.Medulla Oblongata
  • 1.Olfactory Bulbs (I)2. Dura Mater3. Optic Nerve (II)4.Optic Chiasm5.Pituitary Gland (Hypophysis)6a.Trigeminal Nerve (V) - Opthalmic Branch (V)6b.Trigeminal Nerve (V) - Maxillary Branch (V)6c.Trigeminal Nerve (V) - Mandibular Branch (V) 7.Pons8.Trochlear Nerve (IV)9.Abducens Nerve (VI)10.Facial Nerve (VII)11.Medulla Oblongata12.Spinal Accessory Nerve (XI)13.Hypoglossal Nerve (XII)14.Spinal Cord
  • 1.Optic Nerve (II)2. Optic Chiasm3. Optic Tract4.Mammilary Body5.Occulomotor Nerve (III)6.Reflected Pituitary Gland & Trigeminal Nerve (V)
  • 1.Longitudinal Cerebral Fissure2. Cerebral Gyrus3. Cerebral Sulcus4.Pineal Gland5.Superior Colliculus6.Trochlear Nerve (IV)7.Inferior Colliculus8.Cerebellum
  • Brain Region: Telencephalon (Green), Diencephalon (Yellow), Metencephalon (Blue), Mesencephalon(Orange), Myelencephalon (Red)
  • Dura Mater
  • Superior View Longitudinal Fissure Cerebrum Cerebellum
  • Inferior View Olfactory Bulbs Olfactory Tract Optic Nerve Optic Chiasm Pituatary Gland
  • Corpora Quadrigemina Corpora Quadrigemina – Superior Colliculi Corpora Quadrigemina – Inferior Colliculi
  • Sagittal Section of Sheep Brain Cerebrum Cerebellum with arbor vitae Corpus Callosum Lateral Ventricle Fornix Brain Stem
  • Pineal Body Corpus Callosum Lateral Ventricle Fornix
  • Cerebellum Arbor vitae Cerebral Aqueduct Pons Fourth Ventricle Medulla Oblongata
  • Fig. 19.2. Conducting system of mammalian heart.
  • Fig. 19.6. Sagittal section through heart of Squalus.
  • Fig. 19.15. Development of human aortic arches.
  • Focus 19.1. Evolution of gill arch circulation and aortic arches.
  • Fig. 19.19. Internal and external jugular veins evolved from Anterior cardinal and inferior jugular veins.
  • Fig. 19.20. Lymphatic system.
  • Fig. 18.1
  • Fig. 18.21
  • Fig. 17.1 Section through wall of mammalian duodenum
  • Fig. 17.2
  • Fig. 15.1
  • Fig. 15.2
  • Fig. 14.1
  • Terminology and Functions of Brain Regions M ain Sen sory Inp u ts Emb ry o nic Brain Region Ad ult Brain Regio n T y p ical M ammalian Function Olfacto ry sy stem (in clu ding Prosencep h alo n T elencep halon Primary motor cortex, accesso ry o lfactory sy stem) ( foreb rain) ( e.g., cerebral p rimary sensory co rtex, hemisp heres & p rimary visual co rtex, olfactory lo be) p rimary au ditory co rtex & association areas Diencep h alo n T halamic relay n uclei fo r ( e.g., ep ip hy sis, ascend ing an d descen ding thalamus, p ath ways, ep ip hy sis & p ineal, hy p oth alamus) hy p oth alamus & hy p op h y sis Visu al sy stem (retin a) M esencep h alo n M esencep h alo n Projection s o f op tic p athway s ( midbrain) ( e.g., sup erior & inferior colliculi & geniculates) Hearin g, v estibular sy stem, Rhomben cep halon M eten cep halon Balance, h earing and lateral line, (hind brain ) ( e.g., cerebellum) coordin ation electro recep tion & taste M yelencep halon Nu clei for termination and ( e.g., medulla origin o f cran ial nerves III- ob longata) XII; ascen ding and descen ding spinal p athw ay s
  • Fig. 14.11
  • Fig. 14.13
  • Perch (Perca flavescens) Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Actinopterygii Order: Perciformes Family: Percidae Genus: Perca Species: flavescens
  • Oval Body Gas Gland w/ Pneumatic Artery
  • The circulatory system of the perch is a typical low pressure single type system in which the heart is a single pump and there is a single circuit of blood flow. Venous (deoxygenated) blood from the body is pumped through the heart forward to the gills. From the gills, where it is oxygenated, the blood goes directly to the body. Thus the blood makes a single circuit during which it is pumped, oxygenated, and distributed to the body, before it returns to the heart. In this pattern of circulation the heart pumps only deoxygenated blood.
  • 10. Bulbus arteriosus 11. Atrium 12. Ventricle 13. Gill Filaments
  • 14. Liver 18. Duodenum 19. Myomeres 20. Mesentary 20
  • 12. Ventricle 14. Liver 16. Pyloric Ceca 15. Stomach 17 Swim bladder
  • 21. Testis 22. Intestines 22.
  • Bulbus Arterious Gas Gland . Pneumatic Artery Oval Body - Release Gas
  • Atrium Liver Bulbus arteriosus Subclavian artery Why? Cuz it’s going 2 pectoral fins.
  • pancreas Common cardinal a. Bulbus arteriosus ventricle tis Pyloric ceca duodenum stomach
  • Bulbus Ventral aorta arteriosus intestine testis duodenum Pyloric ceca pharynx Renal arteries stomach Kidney Dorsal aorta ventricle Spinal artery
  • Gastric artery
  • Blood passes from the sinus venosus to the atrium and from the atrium to the muscular ventricle. Contraction of the ventricle allows the blood to enter the conus arteriosus and exits through the ventral aorta. From the ventral aorta, the blood goes to the gills through the four pairs of branchial arteries. The afferent branchial arteries enter the capillary beds in the lamallae found in the gills. Here, the blood is oxygenated which then goes to the efferent branchial arteries. The blood exits the efferent branchial arteries to be carried into the dorsal aorta. Arteries carry the oxygenated blood to the rest of the organs and tissue of the head, trunk, and caudal regions. Perch has two divisions to its venous system. They are the hepatic portal system and the systemic veins. In the hepatic portal system, veins carry the blood from the stomach, intestine, and other visceral organs. From these organs, the blood is then transported to the capillary beds in the liver. The hepatic vein collects the blood through posterior cardinals so the blood can be transported to the sinus venosus and to the heart for another round of circulation. The systemic veins system consists of an anterior cardinal veins and posterior cardinals. The veins transport blood from the head while the posterior cardinals move blood from the posterior areas.
  • Testis
  • Spleen Ovary Liver(cut) Stomach Intestines
  • DogFish
  • Sinus Venosus – Dorsal to the ventricle, this is a thin walled, non- muscular sac which acts as a collecting place for deoxygenated blood. Atrium – Similar to the atrium of a human. Ventricle – The main contracting chamber of the heart. Conus Arteriosus – A muscular reservoir that empties after the ventricle contracts. It gives the blood flow an added boost. Esophagus – The connection between the pharynx to the stomach. In the shark the esophagus is very short and wide.
  • Stomach – This J-shaped organ is composed of a cardiac portion which lies near to the heard and a limb portion which is after the bend of the stomach. The stomach ends at the pyloric sphincter – a muscular ring which opens or closes the stomach into the intestine. The pyloric sphincter can be felt if you choose to find it. Duodenum – This is a short section immediately caudal from the stomach. It receives liver secretions known as bile from the bile duct. Liver – The liver is composed of three lobes, two large and one smaller. The gall bladder is located within the smaller lobe. The bladder stores the bile secreted by the liver. Pancreas – Divided into two parts: The ventral pancreas, which is easily viewed on the ventral surface of the duodenum and the dorsal pancreas which is long and thin located behind the duodenum and extends to the spleen. Spiral Intestine – Located cranially from the duodenum and distinguished by the extensive network of arteries and veins over its surface. Rectum – This is the short end portion of the digestive tract between the intestine and the cloaca. The rectum stores solid wastes. Spleen – Located just caudal to the stomach and proximal (before) to the spiral intestine. This organ is not part of the digestive tract, but is associated with the circulatory system.
  • Kidneys – The shark has two dark-colored kidneys on either side of the midline. The shark regulates its urinary system in a way unique compared to most other vertebrates. The shark kidney extracts urea from urine and returns the urea to the blood. In this way the water pressure of the shark’s body fluids are maintained as high as that of sea water. Rectal Glands – These are tube-like extensions of the rectum. This gland controls the salt concentration within the body. Excess salt is secreted into the gland tubule. Via the central gland cavity, salt is released into the rectum for expulsion. Archinephric Ducts – In females these are the ducts that drain into the cloaca through the urinary papilla. In the male shark, this duct transports both urine and sperm (not necessarily at the same time). This duct is much easier to find on the males than it is in females. Also in the male shark the ducts enlarge caudally to form the seminal vesicle. Accessory Urine Ducts – In general, these are absent in female sharks. In males these ducts drain the caudal portion of the kidneys. These are found dorsal to the seminal vesicles.
  • Male Genital System (Figure 12) Testes – The testes are oval in shape and are dorsal to where the liver was. This organ is where male gametes are produced. Epididymis – The cranial part of the kidney that collects sperm. Vas Deferens (Archinephric duct) – A highly coiled tube that carries sperm to the seminal vesicle. Seminal Vesicle – An enlarged section of the vas deferens that dds secretions to the sperm. Sperm Sacs – A pair of small sacs created by invaginations of the seminal vesicles that receives sperm and seminal secretions from the seminal vesicle. Siphon – Produces a secretion that is expelled with the aid of the clasper during mating.
  • Female Genital System Ovaries – Two cream colored organs that were dorsal to the liver and are on each side of the mid-dorsal line. Depending on the maturity of your specimen, it may or may not show eggs within each ovary. The eggs move into the body cavity and then into the oviducts when they are ready to be fertilized. . Oviducts – Elongated tubes that lay dorsal and lateral along the body cavity. These structures are very prominent in mature sharks. Both oviducts share a common opening to the body cavity called the ostium. Shell Gland – Found at the cranial end of the oviducts. This gland secretes a thin shell around a group of eggs and is a reservoir for sperm storage. Eggs are fertilized in this gland as they pass through. Uterus – The enlarged caudal end of the oviduct. It is here that eggs develop.
  • Shark External Pelvic Region 1. pelvic fins 2. cloaca 3. urinary papilla 4. urogenital papilla 5. claspers FEMALE MALE
  • Shark Urogenital System 1. liver 2. stomach 3. lateral abdominal vv. 4. mesorchium 5. left testis 6. kidneys 7. ductus deferens 8. seminal vesicles 9. dorsal aorta 10. posterior cardinal vein 11. right ovary 12. mesovarium 13. right oviduct 14. right & left uterus 15. mesotubarium 16. cloaca 17. intestine
  • Opisthonephros Kidneys
  • Large testes (also shows celiac artery)
  • Testes lifted to show the epididymis (just in front of probe) Epididymis was exposed by removal of the parietal peritoneum.
  • Testes & epididymis (also shows celiac artery & posterior cardinal sinus)
  • Vas deferens & seminal vesicle
  • Testes, epididymis (near probe) & vas deferens
  • Seminal vesicle above the opisthonephros kidney
  • Vas deferens & Leydig gland (alongside & underneath vas deferens) is kidney tissue that has been taken over by male reproductive tract.
  • Male cloaca & urogenital papilla
  • Sperm Sac
  • 1. Ovary 2. Nidamental gland 3. Mesovarium 4. Oviduct 5. Uterus 6. Cloaca
  • 1. Testis 5. Seminal vesicle 2. Mesorchium 6. Sperm sac 3. Leydig's gland 7. Urogenital sinus 4. Archinephric 8. Claspers duct
  • 1. Testis 5. Seminal vesicle 2. Mesorchium 6. Sperm sac 3. Leydig's gland 7. Urogenital sinus 4. Archinephric 8. Claspers duct / Vas deferens
  • Ovary & shellgland
  • Damaged Ovary (eggs have been removed) & shell gland
  • Ant. Mesenteric Artery Rectal Gland Left kidney Oviduct & uterus (slightly enlarged)
  • Dogfish - oviducts near dorsal aorta
  • Dogfish falciform ligament is enlarged & forms the ostium or opening into oviduct
  • Dogfish female urogenital papilla
  • 1. Teeth 2. Tongue 3. Esophagus 4. Pharynx 5. Oral Cavity
  • 1. Liver 2. Pyloric Portion of the Stomach 3. Pancreas 4. Vulvular Intestines 5. Spleen 6. Lesser Curvature of the Stomach 7. Greater Curvature of the Stoma 8. Body of the Stomach 9. Cardiac Curvature of the Stomac 10. Esophagus 11. Duodenum
  • 1. right lobe of liver 2. median lobe of liver 3. left lobe of liver 4. gall bladder 5. common bile duct 6. hepatic portal vein 7. cardiac region of stomach 8. body region of stomach 9. pyloric region of stomach 10. pylorus 11. ventral lobe of pancreas 12. dorsal lobe of pancreas 13. duodenum 14. valvular intestine 15. colon 16. cloaca 17. spleen 18. gastrosplenic ligament 19. gastrohepatic ligament 20. mesentery
  • Intestinal Artery Kidney , Vas deferens Liver Ant. Mesenteric Artery
  • Ventricle
  • Mud Puppy (Necturus maculosus) Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Amphibia Order: Caudata Family: Amphiumidae Genus: Necturus Species: maculosus
  • Rat
  • Rat Dissection MUSCLES Source #1
  • Rat Dissection MUSCLES Source #1
  • Rat Dissection MUSCLES Source #5
  • Rat Dissection MUSCLES Source #5
  • Rat Dissection ORAL CAVITY Source #6
  • Rat Dissection ORAL CAVITY Source #6
  • Rat Dissection DIGESTIVE ORGANS Source #1
  • Rat Dissection DIGESTIVE ORGANS Source #6
  • Rat Dissection DIGESTIVE ORGANS Source #6
  • Rat Dissection DIGESTIVE ORGANS Source #1
  • Rat Dissection DIGESTIVE ORGANS Source #5
  • Rat Dissection DIGESTIVE ORGANS Source #1
  • Rat Dissection DIGESTIVE ORGANS Source #6
  • Rat Dissection DIGESTIVE ORGANS Source #1
  • Rat Dissection THORACIC CAVITY Source #1
  • Rat Dissection HEART + LUNGS Source #5
  • Rat Dissection RESPIRATORY ORGANS Source #1
  • Rat Dissection CIRCULATORY ORGANS Source #1
  • Rat Dissection HEART Source #5
  • Rat Dissection CIRCULATORY ORGANS Source #1
  • Rat Dissection UROGENITAL ORGANS Source #1
  • Rat Dissection EXCRETORY ORGANS Source #5
  • Rat Dissection UROGENITAL ORGANS Source #5
  • Review and Quiz Yourself Rat Dissection THORACIC CAVITY 1. Trachea 2. Heart 3. Lung 4. Diaphragm Source #2
  • Review and Quiz Yourself Rat Dissection HEART 1. Right Atrium 2. Right Ventricle 3. Left Atrium 4. Left Ventricle Source #2
  • Review and Quiz Yourself Rat Dissection THORACIC CIRCULATION 1. Jugular Vein 2. Carotid Artery 3. Superior Vena Cava 4. Ascending Aorta 5. Atrium (right) 6. Ventricles Source #2
  • Rat Dissection ABDOMINAL CAVITY • You should be familiar with the order of the parts of the alimentary canal. Following the path that food would take, we would pass through: – Oral Cavity – Pharynx – Esophagus – Stomach – Pyloric Sphincter – Small Intestine • Duodenum • Jejunum • Ileum – Large Intestine • Cecum • Colon - Ascending Limb - Transverse Limb - Descending Limb • Rectum – Anus Source #1
  • Review and Quiz Yourself Rat Dissection ABDOMINAL CAVITY 1. Liver 2. Stomach 3. Pancreas 4. Duodenum 5. Small Intestines 6. Cecum 7. Urinary Bladder Source #2
  • Review and Quiz Yourself Rat Dissection ABDOMINAL CIRCULATION 1. Abdominal Aorta 2. Renal Artery (left) 3. Renal Vein (left) 4. Inferior Vena Cava 5. Hepatic Portal Vein Source #2
  • Review and Quiz Yourself Rat Dissection MALE REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS 1. Coagulating Gland 2. Urinary Bladder 3. Vas Deferens 4. Epididymis 5. Small Intestines 6. Seminal Vesicle 7. Prostate Gland 8. Penis 9. Testis 10.Scrotum Source #2
  • Review and Quiz Yourself Rat Dissection FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS 1. Stomach 2. Kidney 3. Ovary 4. Oviduct 5. Uterine Horn 6. Large Intestine 7. Urinary Bladder Source #2
  • Review and Quiz Yourself Rat Dissection TAGGED ORGANS 10. Masseter 13. Biceps Brachii 15. Rib Cage 13 Source #7
  • Review and Quiz Yourself Rat Dissection TAGGED ORGANS 5. Esophagus 9. Lung 22. Trachea 27. Heart Source #7
  • Review and Quiz Yourself Rat Dissection TAGGED ORGANS 3. Diaphragm 7. Cecum 8. Liver 11. Ovary 17. Small Intestine 18. Spleen Source #7
  • Review and Quiz Yourself Rat Dissection TAGGED ORGANS 24. Urinary Bladder 26. Uterine Horn Source #7
  • Review and Quiz Yourself Rat Dissection TAGGED ORGANS 1. Adrenal Gland 20 6. Kidney 20. Stomach 23. Ureter 25. Rectum 25 Source #7
  • Review and Quiz Yourself Rat Dissection ANATOMICAL TERMS NAME THAT FUNCTION: Here’s a word bank 1. Toward the midlineMedial to help you out: 2. Toward the back (upper surface of body) Caudal Dorsal Caudal Cranial 3. Toward the tail Distal 4. Toward the side Lateral Dorsal Lateral Distal 5. Farthest from the point of attachment Medial Ventral 6. Toward the belly (underside of body) Proximal Ventral Proximal 7. Closest to the point of attachment Cranial 8. Toward the head
  • Review and Quiz Yourself Rat Dissection ANATOMICAL TERMS NAME THAT FUNCTION: 1. The term referring to bending of a joint Flexion 2. The term referring to movement of an Adduction appendage toward the long axis of the body Extension 3. The term referring to straightening of a joint Abduction 4. The term referring to movement of an appendage away from the long axis of the body
  • Review and Quiz Yourself Rat Dissection ORGAN FUNCTION NAME THAT ORGAN: 1. The whiskers, which have a sensory function Vibrissae Here’s a word bank to 2. The flap-like external ear that directs sound Pinna you out: help waves into the ear opening Mesentery 3. Paired openings leading into the nose Nares Nares Peritoneum Viscera 4. Organs of the thoracic and abdominal cavities Pinna SeptumSeptum 5. A partition or wall separating 2 cavities Mesentery Vibrissae 6. A membrane which suspends the organs Viscera 7. Shiny membrane that lines the abdominal Peritoneum cavity
  • Review and Quiz Yourself Rat Dissection ORGAN FUNCTION NAME THAT MUSCLE: Here’s a word bank to help you out: 1. Abducts the thigh Biceps Femoris Gluteus Maximus or Biceps Brachii 2. Extends the forelimb Triceps Brachii Biceps Femoris 3. Constricts the abdomen External ObliquesExternal Obliques 4. Closes the jaw Masseter Gastrocnemius Gluteus Maximus 5. Adducts the thigh Gracilis Gracilis 6. Flexes the forelimb Biceps Brachii Latissimus Dorsi 7. Masseter Draws the forelimb toward the chest Pectoralis Major Pectoralis Major 8. Extends the foot Gastrocnemius Triceps Brachi 9. Moves the forelimb dorsally + caudally Latissimus Dorsi
  • Review and Quiz Yourself Rat Dissection ORGAN FUNCTION NAME THAT ORGAN: 1. Produces WBC’s (White blood cells) Thymus Gland bank Here’s a word to help you out: 2. Moves food in mouth and tastes Tongue Diaphragm 3. Organs for gas exchange Lungs Hard Palate 4. Lungs Windpipe leading from pharynx to lungs Trachae Soft Palate 5. Bony anterior roof of mouth Hard Palate Teeth 6. Muscular sheet that separates the Thymus Gland thoracic and abdominal cavities Diaphragm Gland Thyroid Tongue 7. Incisors (biting) and molars (grinding) Teeth Trachea 8. Muscular posterior roof of mouth Soft Palate 9. Affects metabolic rate and body growth Thyroid Gland
  • Review and Quiz Yourself Rat Dissection ORGAN FUNCTION NAME THAT ORGAN: Here’s a word 1. Produces insulin for glucose metabolism Pancreashelp you bank to 2. Aids in digestion of proteins Stomach out: 3. Food tube from pharynx to stomach Esophagus Cecum Esophagus 4. Digests and absorbs nutrients Small Intestines Large Intestine 5. Folds in stomach that help mix food Rugae Liver Liver 6. Secretes bile, cleans blood, stores glycogen Pancreas 7. Cleans blood, removes old RBC’s Spleen Small Intestine Spleen 8. Reabsorption of water Large Intestine Stomach 9. Blind pouch where ileum joins colon CecumRectum Rugae 10. End of intestines, compaction of feces Rectum
  • Review and Quiz Yourself Rat Dissection ORGAN FUNCTION NAME THAT ORGAN: 1. Removes wastes + excess H20 from blood Here’s a help you Kidney bank to word 2. Houses developing fetuses Uterine Horn out: 3. Produces and stores sperm Testes Bladder 4. Stores urine before excretion Bladder Kidney Ovary 5. Secretes a fluid that aids sperm survival and motility Prostate Prostate Scrotum 6. Produces eggs Ovary Seminal Vesicle 7. Carry urine from kidney to bladder Ureter Testes Ureter 8. Secretes a fluid that nourishes sperm Seminal Vesicle Uterine Horn 9. Sac that holds the testes Scrotum
  • Review and Quiz Yourself Rat Dissection ORGAN FUNCTION NAME THAT ORGAN: 1. Takes blood from heart to lungs Pulmonary Artery bank Here’s a word to help you out: 2. Large veins take blood to right atrium Vena Cava Aorta Abdominal 3. Top chambers, receive blood Atria Aorta 4. Membrane around heart Pericardial Sac Atria 5. Artery taking blood to head Common Carotid Carotid Common Pericardial Sac 6. Bottom chambers that pump blood out Ventricles Artery Pulmonary 7. Largest artery taking blood from left ventricle Artery Renal Aorta 8. Lower descending aorta takes Vena Cava Ventricles blood to lower trunk and legs Abdominal Aorta 9. Takes blood to kidneys Renal Artery
  • Digestive system 1 Answers Back to system index
  • Digestive system 2 Answers Back to system index
  • Glands Answers Back to system index
  • Respiratory Answers Back to system index
  • Answers Digestive, glands and Respiratory Digestive Glands Digestive Glands continue 11. Anus Respiratory 39. Thymus 32. Stomach 40. Liver 33. Small intestine 41. Gallbladder 34. Duodenum 42. Pancreas 35. Large intestine (colon) 43. Spleen 36. Caecum 44. Adrenal gland 37. Rectum Respiratory Glands 2. Epiglottis (mouth number) 2. Submaxillary gland 6. Nasopharynx (mouth number) 3. Parotid 8. Glottis (mouth number) 4. Sublingual gland 120. Lung 38. Thymus 121. Diaphragm 122. Larynx 123. Trachea
  • Heart Answers Back to system index
  • Answers Heart Back to heart 45. Coronary arteries and Back to system index veins 46. Right atrium 47. Right ventricle 48. Left atrium 49. Left ventricle 50. Pulmonary trunk 51. Ductus arteriosus 52. Aortic arch 53. Aorta 54. Precava 55. Postcava
  • Circulatory above diaphragm 1 Back to index Answers
  • Circulatory above diaphragm 2 Back to index Answers
  • Circulatory above diaphragm 3 Back to index Answers
  • Above diaphragm heart removed Back to index Answers
  • Above diaphragm heart removed 2 Back to index Answers
  • Answers circulatory above diaphragm 72. Subclavian artery 83. Intercostal arteries 73. Subclavian vein 84. Intercostal veins 74. Axillary artery 85. Innominate vein 75. Axillary vein Back to index 86. Cephalic vein 76. Subscapular artery 87. External jugular Circulatory above 1 77. Subscapular vein 88. Internal jugular 78. Brachial artery 89. Hemiazygous vein Circulatory above 2 79. Brachial vein Circulatory above 3 80. Brachial vein 81. Brachiocephalic trunk 82. Common carotids
  • Circulation down back Back to index Answers
  • Answers down back 50. Pulmonary trunk 81. Brachiocephalic trunk 51. Ductus arteriosus 82. Common Carotids 52. Aortic arch 83. Intercostal arteries 53. Aorta 84. Intercostal veins 54. Precava 86. Cephalic vein Back to index 56. Celiac 87. External jugular Back to down back 57. Anterior mesenteric 88. Internal jugular 60. Post mesenteric artery 89. Hemiazygous 72. Subclavian artery 74. Axillary artery 109. Kidney 120. Lung
  • Circulatory below diaphragm 1 Back to index Answers
  • Circulatory below diaphragm 2 Back to index Answers
  • Circulatory below diaphragm 3 Back to index Answers See female reproductive answers for female parts
  • Circulatory below diaphragm 4 Back to index Answers See male reproductive answers for male parts
  • Answers circulatory below diaphragm Back to index Back to below diaphragm 1 56. Celiac 57. Anterior mesenteric Back to below diaphragm 2 58. Renal artery 59. Renal vein 65. Femoral artery and vein 60. Post. Mesenteric artery 66. Deep femoral artery and vein 61. Genital artery and vein 67. Caudal artery and vein 62. External iliac artery and vein 68. Umbilical artery 63. Internal iliac artery and vein 69. Hepatic 64. Circumflex artery and vein 70. Hepatic portal 71. Umbilical vein
  • Excretory (Urinary system)1 Answers Back to index
  • Excretory (Urinary system)2 Answers Back to index
  • Answers to Urinary system 8. Urogential opening male (see sex determination) 109. Kidney Back to index 110. Hilus 111. Ureter Back to excretory 1 112. Bladder Back to excretory 2 113. Urethra 114. Cortex 115. Medulla 116. Pelvis of kidney 117. Calyx 118. Renal pyramid 119. opening urethra female(see sex determination)
  • Female Reproductive system 1 Back to index Answers
  • Female Reproductive system 2 Back to index Answers
  • Female Reproductive system 3 Back to index Answers
  • Answers Female Reproductive 7. Genital papilla Back to index 101. Ovary 102. Oviducts 103. Horns of uterus Back to female 1 104. Uterus Back to female 2 105. Cervix 106. Vagina Back to female 3 107. Urogential sinus 108. Opening of urethra
  • Male Reproductive system 1 Back to index Answers Male Male
  • Male Reproductive system 2 Back to index Answers
  • Male Reproductive system 3 Back to index Answers
  • Male Reproductive system 4 Back to index Answers
  • Answers to male reproductive Back to index 8. Urogential opening 90. Scrotum Male reproductive 1 91. Testical or testes Male reproductive 2 92. Epididymus 93. Gubernaculum Male reproductive 3 94. Vas deferens 95. Inguinal canal Male reproductive 4 96. Penis (Urethra) 97. Cowper’s gland 98. -- 99. Seminal vesicles 100. Prostate gland End show