H Sci 237 The Dimensions Of Health Education LiteraturePresentation Transcript
The Dimensions of Health Education Literature An Evaluation of Published Health Education Research (2000–2005)
Examples of Information Sources Newspapers Magazines Professional Journals Internet Based Information
Types of Information Sources
Written by people who actually conducted the data collection or had first hand experience
Refereed journals publish information only after that information has been reviewed by peers
Written by someone who was not present at the data gathering or did not participate as part of the study team
Value is that it provides a summary of many sources of information and provides a bibliography of original sources
Can also be found in refereed journals
Popular Press Publications
Identifying the Components of a Research Article
Critically Reading a Research Article
Were the aims of the study defined in a clear manner?
Were the research questions/hypotheses clearly stated?
Was the description of the subjects clear?
Did the article state how the subjects were recruited?
Were the design and location of the study described clearly?
Were the data collection instruments described?
Did the results directly address the research questions/hypotheses?
Were the conclusions logical in terms of the research design and data analyses performed?
Were the study implications meaningful to the population you serve?
Evaluating the Accuracy of Non-Research-Based Sources
What are the author’s qualifications?
What is the style of presentation?
Are references included?
What is the purpose of the publication?
What is the reputation of the publication?
Is the information new?
Is the information reliable
Is the information valid?
Professional Health Education Journals On-Line Print Journal/Availability at CSUN No Yes Promotion and Education Yes No International Electronic Journal of Health Education Yes No Health Education & Behavior Yes No Health Promotion International Yes No Health Education Research Yes Yes Journal of School Health No No International Quarterly of Community Health Education Yes No Health Promotion Practice Yes No American Journal of Health Studies No Yes American Journal of Health Promotion Yes Yes American Journal of Health Education Yes Yes American Journal of Health Behavior
Indexes are books that provide a link to articles of a category of interest from many refereed journals, books and research reports
Example: Index Medicus lists articles relating to clinical and preventive medicine and does not include references to social science articles
The list of journals that are included in the index are found in the front pages of each volume
Many indexes are now on CD-ROM
Users begin by looking up a topic of interest in the index (e.g., health behavior)
Example of Using Index Medicus
Looking up “health behavior”
Two sample citations come up
The transitional model of change and HIV prevention: a review. Prochaska JO. Et al. Health Educ Q 1995 May; 22(2): 190-200 (48 ref)
Self-esteem and the value of health as determinants of adolescent health behavior. Torres R. et al. J Adolesc Health 1995 Jan; 16(1): 60-83. (43 ref).
Other Health Education Related Indices
Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature
Physical Education Index
Current Index to Journals in Education
Abstracts are book volumes that include short summaries of research studies that have appeared in other journals
An abstract is usually more valuable than an index in that an abstract provides both a reference and a summary for each article included.
Locate the index at the end of each volume
You can such by both subject or author
Find the subject or author you are interested in, and look at the titles of the articles listed under that subject/author heading
At the end of each article reference there is a number
G0 to the volume of the abstract that includes that number (the numbers included in each volume are listed on the outside binding of the volume
Turn to the number of the article you are interested in and locate the desired article abstract
A Sample Abstract #34782 from Psychological Abstracts
34782. Fleury, Julie. (U of North Carolina, School of Nursing, Chapel Hill) The application of motivational theory to cardiovascular risk reduction. IMAGE: Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 1992(Fall), Vol 24(3), 229-239. The level of motivation sustained by an individual has been identified as a primary predictor of success in sustained cardiovascular risk factor modification efforts. This article reviews the primary motivational theories that have been used to explain and predict cardiovascular risk reduction. Specifically, the application of the Health Belief Model, Health Promotion Model, Theory of Reasoned Action, Theory of Planned Behavior and Self-efficacy Theory to the initiation and maintenance of cardiovascular health behavior is addressed. The implication of these theories for the development of nursing interventions as well as new directions for nursing research and practice in the study of individual motivation in health behavior change are discussed.
Abstracts Most Commonly Used by Health Educators
Recourses in Education
An alternative to searching indexes or abstracts manually
Like an index or abstract, each database has a general subject area that it covers
The Power of Computerized Databases
Provides access to the cumulative information found in several index or abstract sources
Faster than manual searches
User can link several concepts together to narrow the search
A user can link two terms such as health behavior and cardiovascular disease by using the word “and” between the terms
Eliminating any article that only address one or the other of these topics
ERIC: Health Behavior 1,762 hits
ERIC: Health Behavior and Cardiovascular Disease 26 hits
Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC)
Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL)
Psychological Abstracts (PsychLit)
Health Services, Technology, Administration and Research (Health-STAR)
The Internet and the World Wide Web: Evaluating Information
Example of Internet Information
Another Example of Internet Information
The Kind of Articles You Will Find
A total of 2610 articles were reviewed.
52% of these articles were research reports with an identifiable content focus,
28% dealt with the practice of health education (including planning and process evaluation research),
11% represented theoretical discussions and
9% were reviews of the literature.
The General Goal of Health Education
To improve the health knowledge and attitudes of individuals and thereby promote personal behaviors that will lead to optimal health and wellness or high levels of functioning in all of the various dimensions of health*
[*Butler J. Principles of Health Education and Health Promotion, 3rd ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 2001.]
Beliefs About the Nature of Health
Health is typically defined in the literature as being multidimensional,
This requires a balance among such elements as physical health, emotional health, intellectual health, social health and spiritual health*
Further, these dimensions are considered to be dynamic in as much as the status of one dimension will often influence the condition of another**
[*Cottrell RR, Girvan JT, McKenzie JF. Principles and Foundations of Health Promotion and Education, 2nd ed. San Francisco, CA: Benjamin Cummings, 2002.]
[**Butler J. Principles of Health Education and Health Promotion, 3rd ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 2001.]
The Ultimate Function of Health
It is argued that health is functional primarily for its usefulness in the pursuit of higher aims, rather than merely as an end in itself*
[*Read DA. Health Education: A Cognitive-Behavioral Approach. Boston, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 1997.]
A Philosophical Inconsistency
For the most part the health education literature ignores the multidisciplinary nature of health
And, emphasizes physical health to the detriment of all other aspects of health
This is in direct contradiction with health education’s definition of health
The dynamic nature of health cannot be fully appreciated since there is no way to take into account the impact of each component of health on one another
Inconsistencies in Theory and Practice
The national health objectives for most developed nations (e.g. Healthy People 2010), continue to revolve almost exclusively around the prevention and treatment of physical illness.
We now have firm evidence that the mind and body, far from being separate, are intimately interwoven.
There truly are many dimensions of health that interact with each other.
It is therefore less effective, if not negligent, to research and promote physical health without simultaneously addressing the ‘duality’ of other dimensions of health in a truly integrative fashion.
[USDHHS. Healthy People 2010. Washington, DC: US Department of Health and Human Services, 2000]
Barriers to Promoting Multidimensional Wellness
Physical health is tangible, understandable, measurable and objective—and it is therefore easy to target (blood pressure, blood lipid profiles, morbidity and mortality rates, energy expenditure, body mass index, etc.).
A second barrier is the ambiguity of dealing with dimensions of health that have not achieved a consensus definition, are less tangible and seemingly immeasurable.
Finally, there is a reluctance to step into politically charged arenas as the promotion of spirituality
Pursue organized efforts to clearly define the various dimensions of health in a way that builds consensus.
Place pressure on the crafters of national health objectives to develop objectives that represent a dynamic, multidimensional view of health.
Increase local control over resource allocation that might include intervention and evaluation priorities that target nonphysical dimensions of health.
A willingness to commit time and energy to designing, implementing and evaluating the impact of programs that target various nonphysical dimensions of health
What is a Professional Article
Professional articles are written for a particular audience of professionals in a given field (or sub-field).
These articles are usually technical in nature and follow a range of formats typical of publications in the field.
Assessing Health Literature
In a nutshell, when assessing accuracy, consider the following: