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Brief history of immigrants and immigrant communities in Boston.

Brief history of immigrants and immigrant communities in Boston.

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  • 1. The Many Faces of Boston A Broad-brush History of Boston’s Immigrant Heritage
  • 2. The original residents of Massachusetts Tens of thousands of Native Americans lived in Massachusetts.Initial contact with Europeans brought new diseases that wiped out 90% of the population in 1616 and 1617.Today, the 2,000 or so surviving Wampanoag descendants still live in Plymouth county.
  • 3. 1620First Europeans Settle in MassachusettsPilgrims, seeking religious freedom, sail for the New World and establish a colony in Plymouth in 1620.Puritans arrive in 1630 and settle in what will soon become the City of Boston.
  • 4. 1638First Africans are brought to Boston by forceMassachusetts Bay and Plymouth were the first colonies to authorize slavery through legislation. Boston later became one of the important centers of the abolitionist movement. In 1781, Massachusetts was the first state to abolish slavery.
  • 5. 1715French Huguenots and Scots Seek Freedom Boston seen as a place of religious freedom for many Protestant groups persecuted in Europe. Some Huguenots anglicize their names as they assimilate, like Apollis Rivoire, father of Paul Revere. Boston History & Innovation Collaborative© for We Are Boston
  • 6. 1847The first Chinese student brought to Boston by missionaries graduates and goes to Yale Yung Wing graduated from Yale in 1854. The he went back to China and persuaded the government to sponsor students annually to study in America. Bostons Chinatown was formed in the 1870s after the completion of the transcontinental railroad brought former workers to the East Coast.
  • 7. 1850’sWhaling industry attracts new migration Cape Verdeans migrate to the United States to work in the whaling industry. Today, 2 Massachusetts colleges- Roxbury Community College and Bridgewater State College- are headed by Cape Verdeans.
  • 8. 1895 W.E.B. DuBois is the first African-American to receive a Ph.D. from Harvard In 1912, W.E.B. DuBois establishes the Boston Branch of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), the first official and now the oldest branch in the country.
  • 9. 1898U.S. troops invade Puerto Rico as part of the Spanish-American-Cuban War The Census in 1860 and 1880 showed only three Puerto Rican living in Boston. After the war, Spain was forced to cede Puerto Rico, which later became a United States Territory with Commonwealth status.
  • 10. 1900More and more immigrants drawn to the American Dream From 1895 we see waves of Italians, Greeks, Russian Jews, Armenians, Polish, French and English Canadians -small number of immigrants also come from Jamaica and Barbados, and Chinese from California. In 1900, 32% of Massachusetts residents –and 41% of the workforce- are immigrants.
  • 11. 1917Jones-Shafroth Act confers U.S. citizenship on Puerto Ricans In 1988, Nelson Merced becomes the first Puerto Rican and Latino/a elected to State-wide office in Massachusetts. Today, Puerto Ricans are the third largest ancestry group in the City of Boston, behind Irish and Italians.
  • 12. 1925New Immigration Laws Close the Gates The next four decades are characterized by very low levels of immigration.
  • 13. 1955Martin Luther King, Jr. receives a Ph.D. from Boston University. In April 1965, Dr. King led a march from Roxbury to the Boston Common to protest school segregation in Boston. Dr. King spoke at the State House and two months later the legislature passed The Racial Imbalance Act requiring school desegregation.
  • 14. 1960Haitians migrate to escape the rule of “Papa Doc” Duvalier Today, Haitians are the 9th largest ancestry group in Massachusetts and simultaneously make up almost 10% of Boston’s New Bostonian population.
  • 15. 1965Boston becomes home to many groupsAfter 1965 the gates open to the entire world and we see more Latin Americans, Caribbean Islanders, Southeast Asians, West Indians, Vietnamese, Cambodians, Thai, Koreans and many more.
  • 16. 1985Vietnamese refugees settle in the Boston area in the 1980s In the early 1990s, Vietnam allowed its former political prisoners to leave the country. By 2000, the Vietnamese community numbered 10,000, mostly in settled in Dorchester.
  • 17. 2000 Brazil becomes the largest source of immigrants to MassachusettsFrom 2000 to 2003 nearly 1 out of 5 immigrants entering the Commonwealth was Brazilian.
  • 18. 2000 Minority groups have become Boston’s new “majority”Latinos, Asians, African Americans, together with otherminorities make up 50.5% of the city’s total population.
  • 19. 2000People from more than 100 countries call Boston home. Irish, Italians and Puerto Ricans are still the largest ancestry groups in the City. Haitians, Dominicans, Chinese, Vietnamese, Salvadorians, Cape Verdeans, Jamaicans and Colombians make up the largest groups of New Bostonians.
  • 20. 2000New Bostonians speak more than 140 languages The most common languages in the City are Spanish, Haitian Creole, Chinese, Portuguese and Cape Verdean Creole, Vietnamese, French and Italian.
  • 21. 2000 Boston’s neighborhoods become increasingly diverseThe neighborhoods that have experienced the most dramatic change are East Boston, Roslindale and Allston/Brighton.East Boston has the largest proportion of immigrants, while Allston/Brighton has the largest number of foreign-born residents.
  • 22. 2000Despite this, not all New Bostonian’s find it easy to thrive 26,000 households in Boston are linguistically isolated (in which no person aged 14 years and over speaks English at least “very well”).
  • 23. 2004Immigrants keep Massachusetts Growing Immigrants account for 14% of the population and 17% of the workforce. If not for immigrants, the State’s population and labor force would have shrunk from just five years earlier.
  • 24. 2004New Bostonians play an increasing role in the local economy Immigrants spend, from their after-tax earnings, $3 billion annually. These annual expenditures generate a regional product of $2.8 billion and $823 million in State and Federal taxes.
  • 25. 2006 Immigrants are entrepreneursImmigrants own more than 8,000 small businesses in the greater Boston area in different industry sectors. Combined, these businesses represent more than $5.5 billion in annual sales and employ nearly 37,000 people.
  • 26. 2030Immigrants will be critical in filling future labor gaps 76 million “baby boomers” will retire in 2030 while only 46 million native-born workers will have entered the workforce.
  • 27. Boston has always been agateway for immigrants.In fact, 1 in 6 U.S. citizens trace their ancestryback to the port of Boston. Immigrants havehelped make Boston a world-class city. Thatproud tradition continues today. Our futuredepends upon how well we embrace the city’sgrowing diversity. Thomas M. Menino, Mayor of Boston
  • 28. The original residents of Massachusetts Tens of thousands of Native Americans lived in Massachusetts.Initial contact with Europeans brought new diseases that wiped out 90% of the population in 1616 and 1617.Today, the 2,000 or so surviving Wampanoag descendants still live in Plymouth county.
  • 29. 1620First Europeans Settle in MassachusettsPilgrims, seeking religious freedom, sail for the New World and establish a colony in Plymouth in 1620.Puritans arrive in 1630 and settle in what will soon become the City of Boston.
  • 30. 1638First Africans are brought to Boston by forceMassachusetts Bay and Plymouth were the first colonies to authorize slavery through legislation. Boston later became one of the important centers of the abolitionist movement. In 1781, Massachusetts was the first state to abolish slavery.
  • 31. 1715French Huguenots and Scots Seek Freedom Boston seen as a place of religious freedom for many Protestant groups persecuted in Europe. Some Huguenots anglicize their names as they assimilate, like Apollis Rivoire, father of Paul Revere. Boston History & Innovation Collaborative© for We Are Boston
  • 32. 1847The first Chinese student brought to Boston by missionaries graduates and goes to Yale Yung Wing graduated from Yale in 1854. The he went back to China and persuaded the government to sponsor students annually to study in America. Bostons Chinatown was formed in the 1870s after the completion of the transcontinental railroad brought former workers to the East Coast.
  • 33. 1850’sWhaling industry attracts new migration Cape Verdeans migrate to the United States to work in the whaling industry. Today, 2 Massachusetts colleges- Roxbury Community College and Bridgewater State College- are headed by Cape Verdeans.
  • 34. 1895 W.E.B. DuBois is the first African-American to receive a Ph.D. from Harvard In 1912, W.E.B. DuBois establishes the Boston Branch of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), the first official and now the oldest branch in the country.
  • 35. 1898U.S. troops invade Puerto Rico as part of the Spanish-American-Cuban War The Census in 1860 and 1880 showed only three Puerto Rican living in Boston. After the war, Spain was forced to cede Puerto Rico, which later became a United States Territory with Commonwealth status.
  • 36. 1900More and more immigrants drawn to the American Dream From 1895 we see waves of Italians, Greeks, Russian Jews, Armenians, Polish, French and English Canadians -small number of immigrants also come from Jamaica and Barbados, and Chinese from California. In 1900, 32% of Massachusetts residents –and 41% of the workforce- are immigrants.
  • 37. 1917Jones-Shafroth Act confers U.S. citizenship on Puerto Ricans In 1988, Nelson Merced becomes the first Puerto Rican and Latino/a elected to State-wide office in Massachusetts. Today, Puerto Ricans are the third largest ancestry group in the City of Boston, behind Irish and Italians.
  • 38. 1925New Immigration Laws Close the Gates The next four decades are characterized by very low levels of immigration.
  • 39. 1955Martin Luther King, Jr. receives a Ph.D. from Boston University. In April 1965, Dr. King led a march from Roxbury to the Boston Common to protest school segregation in Boston. Dr. King spoke at the State House and two months later the legislature passed The Racial Imbalance Act requiring school desegregation.
  • 40. 1960Haitians migrate to escape the rule of “Papa Doc” Duvalier Today, Haitians are the 9th largest ancestry group in Massachusetts and simultaneously make up almost 10% of Boston’s New Bostonian population.
  • 41. 1965Boston becomes home to many groupsAfter 1965 the gates open to the entire world and we see more Latin Americans, Caribbean Islanders, Southeast Asians, West Indians, Vietnamese, Cambodians, Thai, Koreans and many more.
  • 42. 1985Vietnamese refugees settle in the Boston area in the 1980s In the early 1990s, Vietnam allowed its former political prisoners to leave the country. By 2000, the Vietnamese community numbered 10,000, mostly in settled in Dorchester.
  • 43. 2000 Brazil becomes the largest source of immigrants to MassachusettsFrom 2000 to 2003 nearly 1 out of 5 immigrants entering the Commonwealth was Brazilian.
  • 44. 2000 Minority groups have become Boston’s new “majority”Latinos, Asians, African Americans, together with otherminorities make up 50.5% of the city’s total population.
  • 45. 2000People from more than 100 countries call Boston home. Irish, Italians and Puerto Ricans are still the largest ancestry groups in the City. Haitians, Dominicans, Chinese, Vietnamese, Salvadorians, Cape Verdeans, Jamaicans and Colombians make up the largest groups of New Bostonians.
  • 46. 2000New Bostonians speak more than 140 languages The most common languages in the City are Spanish, Haitian Creole, Chinese, Portuguese and Cape Verdean Creole, Vietnamese, French and Italian.
  • 47. 2000 Boston’s neighborhoods become increasingly diverseThe neighborhoods that have experienced the most dramatic change are East Boston, Roslindale and Allston/Brighton.East Boston has the largest proportion of immigrants, while Allston/Brighton has the largest number of foreign-born residents.
  • 48. 2000Despite this, not all New Bostonian’s find it easy to thrive 26,000 households in Boston are linguistically isolated (in which no person aged 14 years and over speaks English at least “very well”).
  • 49. 2004Immigrants keep Massachusetts Growing Immigrants account for 14% of the population and 17% of the workforce. If not for immigrants, the State’s population and labor force would have shrunk from just five years earlier.
  • 50. 2004New Bostonians play an increasing role in the local economy Immigrants spend, from their after-tax earnings, $3 billion annually. These annual expenditures generate a regional product of $2.8 billion and $823 million in State and Federal taxes.
  • 51. 2006 Immigrants are entrepreneursImmigrants own more than 8,000 small businesses in the greater Boston area in different industry sectors. Combined, these businesses represent more than $5.5 billion in annual sales and employ nearly 37,000 people.
  • 52. 2030Immigrants will be critical in filling future labor gaps 76 million “baby boomers” will retire in 2030 while only 46 million native-born workers will have entered the workforce.
  • 53. Boston has always been agateway for immigrants.In fact, 1 in 6 U.S. citizens trace their ancestryback to the port of Boston. Immigrants havehelped make Boston a world-class city. Thatproud tradition continues today. Our futuredepends upon how well we embrace the city’sgrowing diversity. Thomas M. Menino, Mayor of Boston