Brazilian Diasporaand the Transnational Economy Brazil-Today Alvaro Lima, March 2013
Globalization – A Different Perspective “compression of our spatial and temporal worlds” (D. Harvey) Globalisation Nation Feudal States Tribes Empires ”Globalization [...] as theGlobalisation as intensification of world-wideAnnihilation of Space/ social relations which linkShrinking of the World distant localities in such a way that local happenings are shaped by events occurring many miles“constraints of Geography away and vice versa.” (Giddensrecede” (M. Waters) 1990, p. 64)Dialectics of globalisation and localisation - glocalisation, global cities -“space ... not only homogenised (and global), but always fragmented aswell. ... has not simply shrunk, but ... been transformed” (S. Kirsch)
Traditional Understanding – The Migration Flow ADMISSION: Who? How many? What kind?
Traditional Understanding – The Migration Flow poverty stagnation overpopulation etc… WHY?
Foreign-Born Population of Rich OECD Countries from Developing Countries Population Top Five Total from Percent of Source Top Five Source Country Population Developing Total Countries Countries (millions) Countries Population (percent of (millions) total)United States 281.4 10.1 45.2 Mexico, Philippines, Puerto 28.4 Rico, India, China Morocco, Ecuador,Spain 40.8 1.5 3.7 44.2 Colombia, Argentina, VenezuelaFrance 58.5 3.7 6.4 20.4 Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Turkey, VietnamUK 58.8 5.1 30.1 India, Pakistan, 3.0 Bangladesh, Jamaica, South AfricaNetherlands 16.0 1.2 7.6 48.6 Suriname, Turkey, Indonesia, Morocco, Netherlands AntillesPortugal 10.4 0.5 4.5 62.8 Angola, Mozambique, Brazil, Cape Verde, VenezuelaJapan 127 1.0 69.6 North Korea, South Korea, 1.2 China, Brazil, Philippines Source: Let Their People Come, Lant Pritchett, 2006
Traditional Understanding – The SettlementIntegration policies are skeletal, ad hoc, under-funded anddominated by the ideology of assimilation – MELTING POT labor market entrepreneurship housing ESOL education etc…
New Understand - Immigrant TransnationalismImmigrants forge economic, social, cultural and political relations that linktogether their societies of origin and settlement…
Drivers of Transnationalism Developments in the means of transportation and communications have changed the relations between people and places (costs); International migrations have become crucial to the demographic future of many developed countries; Global political transformations and new international legal regimes weakened the state as the only legitimate source of rights; Fostered by global consumption, global production, and immigration, cultural hybridization are substituting folkloric romanticism and political nationalism enshrined as essences of national cultures;
New Possibilities – Transnational Platform(s) Transnational platform Transnational platform
Monthly Remittance by Nationality $875 $900 $800 MEASURING TRANSNATIONALIS $700 $600 $500 $398 ABOVE AVERAGE M $400 AVERAGE = $294 $331 $278 $274 $300 BELOW AVERAGE $218 $192 $188 $185 $177 $200 $113 $100 $- . r zil do r co al a an a n R m b i a ag u a do ras b a Bra Ecua éxi atem uy i ca olo Nica r l va du Cu M u G m in C Sa H on G Do El Purchasing of Nostalgic Products Among Brazilians 50.0% 45.4% Financial Accounts in Country of Origin - Brazil 45.0% 40.0% 37.6% 35.0%40.0% 30.0%35.0% 25.0% 20.5% 28.9% 17.8% 20.0%30.0% 26.0% 15.0%25.0% 10.0% 5.1% 4.9% 3.7% 5.0% 1.6% 0.8% 0.2%20.0% 0.0% ce s D s in es l s s pi ,C ing ga z ks ho tte em he rs ds Ds o th / m a Boo lco igare t It Ot15.0% n s a os , D V Cl rs A C Cr af od pe Fo i de pa10.0% V ws 5.5% Ne5.0% 1.6% 0.3%0.0% Does not Checking Savings Credit card Investment Foreign have / NR account account account currency savings
Help Beyond Remittances50.0% 46.6%45.0%40.0% 36.80%35.0% ABOVE AVERAGE30.0% 27.0% 22.7%25.0% AVERAGE = 19.2% 20.0%20.0% 15.3% 14.0% BELOW AVERAGE15.0% 10.3% 9.1%10.0% 5.7% 3.7% 5.0% 0.0% . a il or ras ia ua nR o ba or la ya n Br az ad du mb rag ica xi c Cu ad ma Gu Ec u n lo ca n Mé alv ate Ho Co Ni mi El S Gu Do MEASURING Support of Hometown Associations TRANSNATIONALIS 30.0% 26.3% M 25.0% 20.0% 15.0% ABOVE AVERAGE 12.4% 10.0% 10.0% AVERAGE = 6.7% 6.7% 5.0% 4.0% 3.5% BELOW AVERAGE 5.0% 3.3% 2.8% 2.4% 0.0% 0.0% a R. r a il do r as bi ua o n ala o a ya n Br az ua ur m ra g xic ca em ad Cu b Gu Ec nd lo i ca Me in i at alv Ho Co N m Gu El S 11 Do
Some Implications of Transnationalism Portability becomes crucial for transnational migrants – education and certification processes; investment and retirement schemes, health insurance, etc.; The concept of “community,” “society,” as well as “the local,” must be redefined as space of flows (relationships), pluri-local and nation-state-boarder spanning, instead of bounded geographic places – geographic and social container spaces; Transnational immigrant entrepreneurs’ contributions to the economy have to be recognized as such and not as just “ethnic;” Nation-state ideals of identity in both sending and receiving countries are challenged by transnational practices – double citizenship, transnational rights, regimens, etc…; States must re-conceive immigration and adapt their policies and practices to accommodate transnational realities;
First Generation Innovation Portfolio Digaai.com Transnational Index Diaspora Capital Services Educational Delivery & Partnership Models Health Care Management & Insurance Provision Social Security Political Representation
Brazilian Transnational Community United States Digaai Transnational Platform (PHASE I) SEARCH AGGREGATE ARCHIVE CURATE DATAVERSE SLIDESHARE Portugal … … it Spain Brazil capture social practices capture economic activity capture everyday life practices Japan PHASE II Paraguay Angola
Transnational Platform Model (PHASE I) SEARCH AGGREGATE ARCHIVE CURATE WIKI DATAHUB DATAVERSE SLIDESHARE … … … …Brazilian Transnational Community capture social capture economic General Model it practices activity capture everyday life practices (PHASE II) MASHUPS JOURNALING TAGGCLOUDS …