Performance appraisal pdfThe term 360 Degree Appraisal is becoming increasingly familiar in modernorganizations, although in practice, 360 feedback is more often linked to PerformanceReview, Coaching and Leadership Development. Our experience suggests Three KeyQuestions organizations should ask about 360. Firstly, Why has the idea of the 360Degree Leader become so Popular? Secondly, What are the Essential Steps linked toSuccessful Implementation? and finally, Is there anything New we should knowabout 360 Design - and 360 Degree Feedback Software?360 OverviewThe idea of multi-rater assessment goes back a long time. The principle underpins thedesign of Assessment Centres, first introduced by the military in World War Two, andsubsequently in AT&T and other large organizations. 360 degree feedback is part ofthis multi-rater tradition, but it has only recently become easy to administer usinghigh-speed internet connectivity. The process involves a Focus Person, i.e. thesubject of the 360 feedback, receiving feedback from various work associates. An in-depth report then provides insight into the views of these various groups and formsthe basis for a follow-up discussion, which may also lead to further developmentactivities, particularly in the context of leadership skills training.Why has the Idea of the 360 Degree Leader Become so Popular?There is a growing recognition that leadership skills are becoming a core element of amanagers role. This means that task focus has to be supported by appropriate peopleskills. Organizations characterized by high productivity have managers who are ableto:(i) Energize and Motivate their People(ii) Manage Role Relationships in a way that Minimizes Problems and MaximizesOpportunities to Achieve Positive Outcomes.Increasingly, effectiveness is viewed in terms of meeting the expectations of specificgroups of work associate, whilst also ensuring that actions are aligned to widercorporate objectives.The Balanced Processing of Information required to position problems effectivelyand make sound decisions is dependent on a high level of Self Awareness. It istherefore vital that managers and more senior professionals are responsive to feedbackand can evaluate their personal judgement in the context of the task and the people. Inother words, there is a need to Balance both Internal and External perspectives tomake sound decisions.This Personal Insight does not develop by chance, and we know that High Potentialsare more skilled (and objective) in gauging their effectiveness in handling challengingsituations. We see this objectivity in the Self Review ratings made by more-effective
delegates after completion of Assessment Centre Exercises. Well-designed 360 degreefeedback creates opportunities to explore both the behaviour and thought processesthat influence performance outcomes. This is the basis of double loop learning,which is one of the building blocks of Learning Agility. It is also interesting to notethat one of the differentiators of High Potentials is their Learning Agility, whichinvolves applying existing knowledge in new ways, quickly adapting to the demandsof complex, unfamiliar situations. It is evident that 360 degree feedback has thepotential to play a key part in raising awareness of Critical Success Factors that areRole Specific and affect performance outcomes.Although there may be some initial concerns about the impact of 360, thecombination of objective feedback and constructive follow-up is generally valued bymanagers who participate. Structured, open discussion of performance issues can alsocontribute to a wider change of thinking about the process of Self Review, effectiveLearning Strategies, and wider Leadership Performance.What are the Essential Steps that Underpin the Introduction of a Successful360?It is quite often suggested that 360 degree feedback should start at the top and cascadedown through the organization. This may sometimes be of value, but more importantis the overall positioning of the 360. It is very helpful to have the introduction viewedas part of a wider HR process that has a clear relationship to performance andprofessional development. This means that the 360 should be linked to (a) the Contexte.g. change / new challenges, and (b) Constructive Outcomes, e.g. adequate learningresources that support Self Development. In some cases the focus may be onindividual coaching, or alternatively, initial one-to-one feedback may be followed byleadership development workshops and practical leadership skills training.Not all organizations have an open and learning-orientated culture and in this situationgreater effort is required to build commitment to the 360 process. One approach, thatmay encourage positive engagement, is to discuss the people issues that are linked toa new technical initiative, system or process. Even the best systems, to achievepositive results, require committed people, and those people also need to maintainpositive work relationships with others.The 360 review must also ensure confidentiality, and this helps build the confidencerequired for people to give honest responses. However, for organizations that arefurther along the 360 highway, some systems now give the option for respondents toadd their name to written comments. The essential point is that the 360 degreefeedback software must offer the flexibility to allow easy tailoring of thequestionnaire content and the final report.Effective Management of Role Relationships: "Why Intelligent 360?"The focus on Managing Role Relationships is critical in many work situations,especially those requiring the commitment of direct reports, colleagues, internal andexternal customers, business partners or stakeholders. In the case of managers, itspossible to identify a range of Scenarios that create challenges and demands. Theseoften represent Critical Incidents i.e. difficult situations, where the behaviour of the
manager is the key to the outcome. In this context, use of 360 degree performanceappraisal looks promising, but what steps are required to get the maximum benefit?In traditional 360 design, a single set of questions has been directed to everyoneproviding feedback. However, analysis of 360 questionnaire results suggests thatwhen a Cannot Say option is provided, up to 48% of respondents may decline toanswer some questions. This is generally because the questions are not relevant tothose respondents. The result is an overly long questionnaire that is viewed asirrelevant by many of the busy professionals who are providing feedback. Thisundermines the credibility of the whole process.The single most important change in recent 360 degree feedback design involvestargeting specific questions to different groups of respondent. This means that weonly ask Business Partners the questions that make sense to Business Partners! Wealso need to incorporate written comments that can highlight areas of Strength, as wellas opportunities for Development. Feedback comments should therefore be linked toActivities. The first step in constructive feedback often involves reviewing theContext that relates to specific comments.This approach is at the heart of Intelligent 360 and also adds new focus to the idea ofEmotional Intelligence. The Effective Management of Role Relationships is closelyaligned with the EI attributes of Self Awareness, being responsive to others, and SelfRegulation i.e. considering the impact of actions on others. Balanced Processing ofInformation is also one of four key attributes associated with Authentic Leadership.With effective briefing of all involved in the 360 degree feedback process, commentsare generally measured and constructive. This is a significant step towards building alearning organization.Practical Questions Relating to 360 Degree FeedbackNot all 360 degree feedback software incorporates the latest design and technicalsupport features. It is most important that the administration is largely automated,offers effective reminder and follow-up arrangements, and encourages ownership ofthe process by the Focus Person. Ideally, internet access is backed by facilities toinput paper versions of the 360, and all aspects of the design should have scope to betailored to requirements. The latest 360 includes questions targeted to different groupsof respondent, support materials relating to design, and a library of questions that canbe used as the start point for a new questionnaire.Reports should also have options for tailored content, and the best examples combinerating of competencies and questions that invite written comment. The promptheadings linked to the written sections may relate to effectiveness in handlingparticular situations, or more general comments about strengths and areas fordevelopment. The online Control Panel should place the client administrator in theposition to easily review progress, add or edit respondent details, re-start or edit auto-emails, and finally, generate reports in pdf or Word formats.Finally, before deciding on a 360 provider, consider the options for wider use of thedata collected through the 360 feedback process. In addition to generating high
quality individual reports, the latest 360 software will also produce 360 GroupReports that help identify overall Strengths and Weaknesses. This is done bycombining all the 360 feedback and then filtering by such categories as Division,Region and Office. It encourages the Divisional and Section Heads to become directlyinvolved in a discussion concerning the training needs suggested by the 360 feedback.It is possible, for example, that positive relationships between team members concealdifficulties with specific issues of concern to customers, or the need for more positiveinteraction with business partners.The new generation of 360 software, with its strong focus on Role Relationships,offers a forward-looking approach to Training Needs Analysis. The combination oftargeted questions, online administration, and flexibility in the range of GroupReports that can be generated, makes the analysis very straight-forward. As it is alsogrounded in real life, there is naturally a strong base to follow-up with practicalleadership skills training.CostsIf you are designing your own 360 degree feedback questionnaire, and tailored report,you should be able to find a supplier who offers this facility free of charge. Some 360systems still require a fee to register, or restrict the number of respondents orcategories (colleagues, direct reports etc) that can be included in the report. Theadvice here is that flexible should mean Flexible, and if some wished-for aspects offunctionality are not currently available, it is often possible to have these added. Acompetitive price on individual reports should also be coupled with volume discounts,and there may be the option of a long-term licence.SummaryIn conclusion, 360 degree feedback can be used simply to support a coaching session,or form part of a broader HR initiative linked to Leadership Development. Intelligent360 software, coupled with careful planning of how best to introduce the process, andprofessionalism in managing feedback, gives organizations a powerful tool that canachieve real changes in Managers behaviour. The process can encourage greateropenness and create insight into new learning strategies linked to RelationshipManagement. In the War for Talent, companies need to use the most effective tools toengage managers and strengthen leadership performance.The latest 360 initiatives finally give HR managers the flexibility and focus requiredto pinpoint the Role-Related Critical Success Factors linked to high performance.Recent research includes in-depth analysis of the specific issues that are most relevantto direct-reports. The relevant behaviour can easily be included in the design of new360 degree leadership questionnaires.http://performanceappraisalebooks.info/ : Over 200 ebooks, templates, forms forperformance appraisal.