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System Architecture at DDVE
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System Architecture at DDVE

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A very basic overview of different architectural concepts, buzzwords and issues regarding architecture of (distributed) systems.

A very basic overview of different architectural concepts, buzzwords and issues regarding architecture of (distributed) systems.

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  • 1. System architecture DDVE 2012
  • 2. A few principlesComponents involved in an internet applicationCloud computingOptimizing and scaling up
  • 3. Principles of architectureDurability - should last for long in good conditionUtility - should be useful and fulfill its functionBeauty - should make people happy "Firmitas, Utilitas, Venustas" - Vitruvius, 1th century BC
  • 4. Principles of software architecture
  • 5. 1. ReliabilityProbability of error-free operation
  • 6. 2. EfficiencyAbility to fulfill the task in the most optimum wayNot to be confused with performance
  • 7. 3. UsabilityEase of use of the systemLearnability, Efficiency, Memorability, Errors,Satisfaction
  • 8. 4. MaintainabilityAbility to adapt to changePortability (to a different environment)Transferrability (to another team)
  • 9. Components involved in an internet application
  • 10. ServerA computer program servicing requests fromother programs (clients)Server (hardware) - a computer dedicated torunning one or more such service
  • 11. Database ServerOrganized collection of data together withmanagement softwareOracle, MySQL, PostgreSQL, HBase, Cassandra
  • 12. Web ServerSoftware serving HTTP requestsThe engine behind websites, small or largeApache, IIS (Microsoft), nginx,
  • 13. Load balancerStands in front of a cluster of web serversDistributes requests between cluster nodes to evenout the loadProvides failover when one node failsF5 BIG-IP, Cisco, Apache
  • 14. Web AcceleratorFrees up backend server by caching static contentImproves load speeds by compressing pagesSquid, Varnish, ...
  • 15. Sample architecture - 99designs.com 99designs.com
  • 16. Cloud computing SaaS PaaS IaaS
  • 17. SaaSSoftware-as-a-ServiceApplication hosted on the web, no installationnecessaryGMail, SalesForce, BaseCamp, thousands of others
  • 18. PaaSPlatform-as-a-ServiceNo need to care about operating system etc, candeploy your software directly, usually has goodmonitoring toolsEngineYard, Heroku, AppFog, Azure Cloud, zone.ee
  • 19. IaaSInfrastructure-as-a-ServiceYou have to deal with all the nuts and boltsbutYou get full control over your serverall Virtual Private Server providers (zone.ee,Amazon EC2)
  • 20. Amazon S3Amazon Simple Storage ServiceSimilar services: nimbus.io, possibly others
  • 21. CAP theoremConsistency / Availability / Partition tolerancePick two
  • 22. CAP theoremConsistency / Availability / Partition tolerancePick twoStory of Remembrance, Inc
  • 23. Optimizing and scaling upOptimizing - making the system less resourcehungryScaling up - adding resources to the system
  • 24. Optimizing and scaling upKnow what you want to improve:page load time / throughput / server load / memoryusage
  • 25. Optimizing and scaling upOptimize first, then scale upMeasure first, make changes afterIdentify the bottlenecks!
  • 26. Things to do to make it betterOptimize database queriesOutsource / optimize content deliveryIntroduce caching
  • 27. Examples from the big boys
  • 28. Google MapReducePartition processing huge amounts of data (used insearch) http://jcit.org/web/files/csc548/fpgrowth.html
  • 29. Facebook BigPipeOptimize page loading speed for end usersFB loads page inblocks https://www.facebook.com/note.php?note_id=389414033919
  • 30. Twitter & memcached http://www.slideshare.net/Blaine/scaling-twitter
  • 31. Twitter & memcached http://www.slideshare.net/Blaine/scaling-twitter
  • 32. Twitter & memcachedTwitter does a LOT of caching: in 2007 they had- 600 tweets/second- 180 web servers- 1 DB serverCan be done if you mostly read and rarely writeThere are only two hard things in ComputerScience: cache invalidation and naming things. -- Phil Karlton