Presentation based on tefl method


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Presentation based on tefl method

  2. 2. INTRODUCTION Praise to Allah SWT who has given taufik, guidance, and inayah so that we all can still move as usual as well as the author so I can complete the task creation Indonesian Language paper entitled "PRESENTATION BASED ON TEFL METHOD". The paper is organized so that readers can add insight or expand existing knowledge about TEFL that we present in this paper an arrangement of a concise, easy to read and easy to understand. The authors also wish to express many thanks to his teammates and the father / mother of teachers who have guided the author in order to make authors of scientific papers in accordance with the provisions in force so that it becomes a scientific paper is good and right. Hopefully, this paper can be useful for readers and expanding horizons about PRESENTATION BASED ON TEFL and the details.And do not forget also the author apologizes for any shortcomings here and there of the paper's authors do. Please critique and suggestions. Thank you. Author .
  3. 3. TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction i Table Of Contents ii CHAPTER I 1.1. Background CHAPTER II DISCUSSION CHAPTER III CLOSING Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………… 20 REFERENCES ....................................................................................................................21
  4. 4. CHAPTER 1 Background Standing in front of a group and presenting a talk can be a daunting task for even the most confident of us, and even more so for language learners. What is the best way to be self confidence? When sifting through my class's needs analysis results, it became obvious that many of my students may eventually be called on to give oral presentations. The target contexts include international research forums, conferences and post-graduate study abroad in English-medium institutions. During your SEE TEFL certification course you will become more familiar with an established methodology for teaching English as a foreign language known as 3Ps or PPP – presentation, practice, production. The PPP method could be characterised as a common-sense approach to teaching as it consists of 3 stages that most people who have learnt how to do anything will be familiar with. The first stage is the presentation of an aspect of language in a context that students are familiar with, much the same way that a swimming instructor would demonstrate a stroke outside the pool to beginners.
  5. 5. CHAPTER 2 DISCUSSION Presentation – Part 1 of PPP You may have delivered a few presentations in your time but the type of presentation we deliver in a second language classroom will differ quite a bit from those. For a start, you were speaking to proficient users of the English language about something they were, most likely, vaguely familiar with anyway. In an EFL classroom we don’t have those luxuries, so we have to be careful about the language we use and how clearly we present the new language that we wish for our students to acquire. Let’s look at 4 key things that should be occurring in an effective second language classroom presentation: 1 – Attention in the Classroom Learners are alert, have focused their attention on the new language and are responsive to cues that show them that something new is coming up. A simple way to ensure some of the above is if the teacher makes the target language interesting to the students. The language will of course, be of more interest to the students if it is put into some type of context that the students are familiar with. In the case of likes and dislikes for young learners a visual associated with a facial expression will be something they can relate to. Naturally, the easier it is for them to relate to the context, the more likely they are to be interested in the language presented. In the case of the target language for the videos a smiley face visual and a sad face visual on the whiteboard linked to the phrases I like ___. and I don’t like ___., respectively. A teacher might make exaggerated facial expressions whilst presenting these ideas to make the ideas both fun and easy to perceive for the students. This is often referred to as contexualisation in EFL classrooms. 2 – Perception and Grading of Language We want to ensure that the learners both see and hear the target language easily. So if a whiteboard is being used, it should be well organised with different colours being used to differentiate between different ideas. If images are being used, there should be no ambiguity as to what they represent and sounds made by the teacher should not only be clear, but should be repeated and the teacher needs to check the material has been perceived correctly, and can do this by asking the students to repeat the sounds he or she is making. Learners will be bombarded with a series of images corresponding to sounds made by the teacher during the presentation stage and it is the teacher’s responsibility to ensure
  6. 6. that they are not overloaded with information and that clear links are being made between the images and the associated sounds. Therefore, there is an onus on the teacher not to use any unnecessary language at this stage. That is to say the grading of their language should be appropriate for the level of their students and the language they use should consist of the target language and any other essential language required to present the ideas clearly such as commands like listen! The commands should, whenever possible, be supported by clear body language. 3 – Target Language Understanding The learners must be able to understand the meaning of the material. So in the case of likes and dislikes they perhaps need to see an image of a happy face and associate it with liking something and a sad face and associate that with disliking something. We also need to have a way of checking if the learners did indeed, understand the material presented without asking the question, Do you understand? as this invariably triggers the response yes! from learners who are keen to please their teacher and not to lose face. We, as teachers, need to be a little more imaginative in checking our student’s understanding of material presented. Ideally, we should be checking the learners’ understanding in context. In the videos you will see, expect to see the teacher doing this during the presentation stage. 4 – Short-term Memory in the Classroom The learners will have to retain the information from the presentation and use it further on in the lesson when we have consolidated their learning of the material and we will give them an opportunity to produce it on their own. For the target language to be retained by the learners, it needs to be engaging and we need to consider that different learners will remember the material in different ways. Some by the way the material is seen, others by the way it is heard, and others if it is associated with a physical movement perhaps. We need to make sure our presentation has something to enable all these types of learners to retain the information. A TEFL (Teaching English as a Foreign Language) qualification will allow you to teach English all over the world! No teaching experience? No problem - if you can speak English you can teach English! for three hours on a daily basis receiving instruction often complain about classes being "boring". Not only that, but they also find the material the teachers use not engaging enough, wishing they would be given the chance to participate in the selection of the content. “PPP” Presentation, Practice and Production
  7. 7. “Presentation” involves presenting the target language (the language to be taught to the students) to the students generally through eliciting and cueing of the students to see if they know it and then providing the language if no one does. The target language is usually put on the board either in structure (grammar-type) charts or in dialogs. Presentation features more “teacher talk” than the other stages of the lesson, generally as much as 65-90% of the time. This portion of the total lesson can take as much as 20-40% of the lesson time. Next comes “Practice” where the students practice the target language in one to three activities that progress from very structured (students are given activities that provide little possibility for error) to less-structured (as they master the material). These activities should include as much “student talk” as possible and not focus on written activities, though written activities can provide a structure for the verbal practices. Practice should have the “student talk time” range from 60-80 percent of the time with teacher talk time being the balance of that time. This portion of the total lesson can take from 30-50% of the lesson time. “Production” is the stage of the lesson where the students take the target language and use it in conversations that they structure (ideally) and use it to talk about themselves or their daily lives or situations. Production should involve student talk at as much as 90% of the time and this component of the lesson can/should take as much as 20-30% of the lesson time. As you can see the general structure of a PPP lesson is flexible but an important feature is the movement from controlled and structured speech to less-controlled and more freely used and created speech. Another important feature of PPP (and other methods too) is the rapid reduction of teacher talk time and the increase in student talk time as you move through the lesson. One of the most common errors untrained teachers make is that they talk too much. EFL students get very little chance to actually use the language they learn and the EFL classroom must be structured to create that opportunity. See the paragraph on Pairwork and Small Groups below. Presentation (or ESA format): Note the target language to be taught and how you will teach it. Include how you will stimulate the students’ interest in the language and how you might elicit from the students the language you are planning to teach. Include details as specific as when you might model structures and dialog and when you will require a repeated response (choral response) from the students. Include a structure chart for the grammar or the dialog you intend to teaThe PRESENTATION phase of the lesson is when the teacher introduces new information. The teacher guides the presentation, but there may be student input or interaction. The presentation may be...
  8. 8. Inductive (where examples are presented and the students draw conclusions based on them), orDeductive (where the teacher states a rule or generalization and proceeds to explain or illustrate it), or Some combination or variation of inductive and/or deductive. Whichever method is used, during the presentation phase, the teacher… Relates the new material to students' previous knowledge and experiences, Checks students' comprehension, and Models examples of the tasks that will be expected of students during the practice phase of the lesson. Keep the language of your presentation understandable by… Using short, uncomplicated sentences (but don't resort to "Tarzan talk") Using simple, basic vocabulary, Speaking slowly and distinctly (without exaggerating, of course), and... Pausing briefly between sentences You will have to be sensitive to your particular students (watch their faces, ask them for feedback, check their actual comprehension) in order to adjust all these factors to the right level for them. Illustrate your presentation with… pictures (borrowed from a library, clipped from old magazines, drawn on paper or the chalkboard, etc.) realia (objects from the real world, e.g., real carrots and potatoes for a lesson on the names of vegetables) gestures (pantomime, make dramatic faces, etc. as you speak), and anything else that helps make the meaning clear. And perhaps most important of all… Above all, when teaching English to people whose English skills are limited, it is essential to ensure that students understand the presentation by... Keeping the language simple, Illustrating the presentation, and Checking students' comprehension periodically.
  9. 9. When checking students comprehension, it is not enough to ask, "Do you understand?" They will usually nod their heads or say, "Yes," even when they are lost. Have them do something to show that they understand.For example, here is what an ESL teacher might say during the presentation stage of a lesson on the pronunciation of /s/ and /z/: Before going on, review what you have learned in this section by writing down some of the methods, purposes and techniques common to good introductions and presentations in effective ESL lessons.
  10. 10. CHAPTER 3 1. CONCLUSION Presentation is how to give our knowledge or our result and also observation for audiences.that paper is tell how to be good presentator especially in TEFL. Teaching English as a foreign language (TEFL) refers to teaching English to students whose first language is not English. TEFL usually occurs in the student's own country, either within the state school system, or privately, e.g., in an after-hours language school or with a tutor. TEFL teachers may be native or non-native speakers of English.
  11. 11. REFERENCES Burden, P.R. and Byrd, D.M. 1999.Method for Effective Teaching. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, Inc. Suratinah, Ph.D, dkk (2002) Research in ELT (English Language Teaching) Harmer, J. 1991.The Practice of English Language Teaching (rev ed.). London: Longman