EDUCATIONALINSTRUMENTS
INSTRUMENTS…Instruments: Collections of items or  questions intended to measure,  collectively (total score) levels of  th...
THE TYPES OF INSTRUMENTS…1. Cognitive Instruments2. Affective Instruments3. Projective Instruments
1. COGNITIVE INSTRUMENTS...  Measure      an       individual’s   attainment in academic areas   typically  used   to    d...
TYPES OF COGNITIVE INSTRUMENTS...  1. Achievement tests    …provide information about how well the test takers      have l...
2. Aptitude tests  …measure the intellect and abilities not normally    taught and often are used to predict future    per...
2. AFFECTIVE INSTRUMENTS...  Measure characteristics of individuals along a number    of dimensions and to assess feelings...
TYPES OF AFFECTIVE INSTRUMENTS...  1. attitude scales    …self-reports of an individual’s beliefs, perceptions, or      fe...
2. values tests  …measure the relative strength of an individual’s valuing    of theoretical, economic, aesthetic, social,...
3. Personality inventories  …an individual’s self-report measuring how behaviors    characteristic of defined personality ...
3. PROJECTIVE INSTRUMENTS...  Measure a respondent’s feelings or thoughts   to an ambiguous stimulus
PRIMARY TYPE OF PROJECTIVE TEST...  1. Associational tests    …participants react to a stimulus such as a      picture, in...
STEPS IN CONSTRUCTING AN INSTRUMENT1) Determine clearly what it is you want to measure.2) Generate a pool of possible item...
RULES GOVERNING THE SELECTIONINSTRUMENTS...1. The highest validity2. The highest reliability3. The greatest ease of admini...
SELECTING AN INSTRUMENT...1. Determine precisely the type of   instrument needed2. Identify and locate appropriate   instr...
ADMINISTERING THE INSTRUMENT...1. Make arrangements in advance2. Ensure ideal testing environment3. Be prepared for all pr...
TWO ISSUES IN USING INSTRUMENTS...1. Validity: the degree to which the   Validity   instrument measures what it purports  ...
TERMS ASSOCIATED WITH INSTRUMENTS    1. DATA    2. CONSTRUCTS    3. VARIABLE    4. RAW SCORES    5. MEASUREMENT SCALES
Data…Data…the pieces of information researchers collect through instruments to examine a topic or hypothesis
Constructs…Constructs…abstractions of behavioral factors that cannot be observed directly and which researchers invent to ...
Variable…Variable…a construct that can take on two or  more values or scores
Raw scores…    scores…the number of items an individual scored on an instrument
Measurement scales…             scales…the representation of variables so that they can be quantified
MEASUREMENT SCALES...Qualitative (categorical)Nominal variables “categorical”: classifiespersons or objects into two or mo...
MEASUREMENT SCALES...Quantitative (continuous)              ( 1. Ordinal variables“order”: classifies persons or objects a...
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Educational Instruments

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Educational Instruments

  1. 1. EDUCATIONALINSTRUMENTS
  2. 2. INSTRUMENTS…Instruments: Collections of items or questions intended to measure, collectively (total score) levels of theoretical variables (constructs) not easily observable directly.
  3. 3. THE TYPES OF INSTRUMENTS…1. Cognitive Instruments2. Affective Instruments3. Projective Instruments
  4. 4. 1. COGNITIVE INSTRUMENTS... Measure an individual’s attainment in academic areas typically used to diagnose strengths and weaknesses
  5. 5. TYPES OF COGNITIVE INSTRUMENTS... 1. Achievement tests …provide information about how well the test takers have learned what they have been taught in school …achievement is determined by comparing it to the norm, the performance of a national group of norm similar students who have taken the same test
  6. 6. 2. Aptitude tests …measure the intellect and abilities not normally taught and often are used to predict future performance …typically provide an overall score, a verbal score, and a quantitative score
  7. 7. 2. AFFECTIVE INSTRUMENTS... Measure characteristics of individuals along a number of dimensions and to assess feelings, values, and attitudes toward self, others, and a variety of other activities, institutions, and situations
  8. 8. TYPES OF AFFECTIVE INSTRUMENTS... 1. attitude scales …self-reports of an individual’s beliefs, perceptions, or feelings about self, others, and a variety of activities, institutions, and situations …frequently use Likert, semantic differential, Thurstone , or Guttman scales
  9. 9. 2. values tests …measure the relative strength of an individual’s valuing of theoretical, economic, aesthetic, social, political, and religious values
  10. 10. 3. Personality inventories …an individual’s self-report measuring how behaviors characteristic of defined personality traits describe that individual
  11. 11. 3. PROJECTIVE INSTRUMENTS... Measure a respondent’s feelings or thoughts to an ambiguous stimulus
  12. 12. PRIMARY TYPE OF PROJECTIVE TEST... 1. Associational tests …participants react to a stimulus such as a picture, inkblot or word onto which they project a description
  13. 13. STEPS IN CONSTRUCTING AN INSTRUMENT1) Determine clearly what it is you want to measure.2) Generate a pool of possible items (about 60 for a 20 item instrument).3) Decide on question format (yes/no, strongly agree, agree, etc)4) Decide how to score the instrument (e.g. on an optimism scale, all responses that indicate optimism should get higher scores, so that the more optimistic you are, the higher your total score).5) Administer the instrument to a pilot sample of people: 100 - 300.6) Scale purification: Evaluate each item using the pilot data
  14. 14. RULES GOVERNING THE SELECTIONINSTRUMENTS...1. The highest validity2. The highest reliability3. The greatest ease of administration, scoring, and interpretation4. Test takers’ lack of familiarity with instrument5. Avoids potentially controversial matters
  15. 15. SELECTING AN INSTRUMENT...1. Determine precisely the type of instrument needed2. Identify and locate appropriate instruments3. Compare and analyze instruments4. Select best instrument
  16. 16. ADMINISTERING THE INSTRUMENT...1. Make arrangements in advance2. Ensure ideal testing environment3. Be prepared for all probable contingencies
  17. 17. TWO ISSUES IN USING INSTRUMENTS...1. Validity: the degree to which the Validity instrument measures what it purports to measure2. Reliability: the degree to which the Reliability instrument consistently measures what it purports to measure
  18. 18. TERMS ASSOCIATED WITH INSTRUMENTS 1. DATA 2. CONSTRUCTS 3. VARIABLE 4. RAW SCORES 5. MEASUREMENT SCALES
  19. 19. Data…Data…the pieces of information researchers collect through instruments to examine a topic or hypothesis
  20. 20. Constructs…Constructs…abstractions of behavioral factors that cannot be observed directly and which researchers invent to explain behavior
  21. 21. Variable…Variable…a construct that can take on two or more values or scores
  22. 22. Raw scores… scores…the number of items an individual scored on an instrument
  23. 23. Measurement scales… scales…the representation of variables so that they can be quantified
  24. 24. MEASUREMENT SCALES...Qualitative (categorical)Nominal variables “categorical”: classifiespersons or objects into two or more categories
  25. 25. MEASUREMENT SCALES...Quantitative (continuous) ( 1. Ordinal variables“order”: classifies persons or objects and ranks them in termsof the degree to which those persons or objects possess acharacteristic of interest2. Interval variablesranks, orders, and classifies persons or objects according toequal differences with no true zero point3. Ratio variablesranks, orders, classifies persons or objects according to equaldifferences with a true zero point
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