What steps did Washington take to make the new government work?
What was Hamilton’s plan to reduce the nation’s debt and build the economy?
What were the causes and results of the Whiskey Rebellion?
Making the New Government Work
Washington was inaugurated on April 30, 1789.
A presidential inauguration is the ceremony in which the President takes the oath of office.
I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States.
Washington set a precedent , or an example for others to follow, by choosing well-known leaders to serve in the Cabinet.
Precedent: an act or decision that sets an examples for others to follow.
The First Cabinet
Congress created five departments to help the President.
Attorney General - Edmund Randolph
Foreign Affairs - John Jay
Secretary of State - Thomas Jefferson
Secretary of Treasury: Alexander Hamilton
Secretary of War - Henry Know
Postmaster General - Samuel Osgood
The Judiciary Act
In 1789, Congress passed the Judiciary Act, which set up the federal court system.
Time in Office
Washington set another precedent when he decided not to run for a third term.
Not until 1940 did any President seek a third term.
The Nation’s Debt pg. 280
The United States had a huge national debt —the total amount of money that a government owes to others. The national government and state governments had borrowed by issuing bonds.
Bonds —certificates that promise to repay the money loaned, plus interest, on a certain date.
Hamilton—the federal government must repay both federal and state debts by buying up the old bonds and issuing new ones. The United States must repay all debts so it won’t lose the trust of investors.
James Madison—Hamilton’s plan would reward speculators —people who invest in a risky venture in hopes of a large profit..
Hamilton promised to support putting the nation’s capital in the South if southerners agreed to his plan for repaying state debts.
To raise money for the Treasury, Congress approved a tax on all liquor made and sold in the United States.
Backcountry farmers grew corn. It was easier to get their product to market if they turned their corn into whiskey first. They hated the tax on whiskey. They rebelled, marching in protest and tarring and feathering tax collectors.
Washington called up the militia and sent them to put down the rebellion. The rebels fled back to their farms. The national government had shown that it would act firmly in times of crisis. It also showed that violence would not be tolerated.
Section 9.1 Assessment
To help President Washington carry out his duties, the first Congress
a) passed the Judiciary Act.
b) created the Bank of the United States.
c) created five departments whose heads made up the Cabinet of advisors.
d) agreed to place the nation’s capital near his home along the Potomac.
Hamilton thought the national government should pay off both national and state war debts because
a) it showed the government would act firmly in a time of crisis.
b) if it didn’t, it would lose the trust of future investors.
c) it was not fair for speculators to make a profit on the war.
d) it would protect local industry from foreign competition.