The world today is characterized by an evergrowing number of contacts resulting incommunication between people with differentlinguistic and cultural backgrounds. Thiscommunication takes place because of contactsin areas of business, military cooperation,science, education, mass media, entertainment,tourism and also because of immigrationbrought about by labor shortage or politicalconflicts. (Allwood, 2003)
Communication[kuh-myoo-ni-key-shuhn]–noun1.the act or process of communicating2.the imparting or interchange of thoughts,opinions, information by speech, writing, orsigns.(http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/communication)
LANGUAGELanguage is an abstract system of word meaning and symbols for all aspects of culture.
It includes:0Speech 0Symbols0Written 0Gestures characters 0Expressions of0Numerals non-verbal communication
TWO TYPES OF COMMUNICATION0Verbal- refers to use of language0Non-Verbal- refer to the use of gestures, facial expressions, and other body movements
PARALANGUAGE- is the language of gestures, expressions and postures
Language is a system of verbal and, in many cases,written symbols with rules about how those symbolscan be strung together to convey more complexmeanings. It is impossible to overstate theimportance of language in the development,elaboration, and transmission of culture. Languageenables people to store meanings and experiences topass this heritage to new generations. Throughlanguage, we are able to learn about and from theexperiences of others. In addition, language enablesus to transcend the here and now, preserving the pastand imagining the future. It also makes possible theformulation of complex plans and ideas.(Calhoun, et al., 1994)
The meaning of verbal andnonverbal gestures vary from oneculture to another. (Schaefer,2003)
A man’s language is a reflectionof the kind of person he is, thelevel of education he has attainedand an index to the behavior thatmay be expected from him.
Humans are the only living creaturesknown to be capable ofcommunicating intricate systems ofsymbols, storing knowledge, andtransmitting this knowledge to a newgeneration.
Language is the key factor in thesuccess of the human race increating and preserving culture, forwithout language the ability toconvey ideas and traditions isimpossible.
THE STUDY OF LANGUAGE 0Phonology 0Semantics 0Grammar 0Pragmatics
PHONOLOGY- refers to a system of sounds
SEMANTICS- is a study of word meanings and word combinations
GRAMMAR- refers to the structure of languagethrough its morphology and syntax
PRAGMATICS- is concerned rules for the use of appropriate language particular contexts
The pupil learns to take turns inspeaking, to remain silent whileother speak, and to speak differentlyin different settings such as theclassroom and the play ground.(Hetherington and Parke, 1999)
If culture can affect the structureand content of its language, thenit follows that linguisticdiversity derives in part fromcultural diversity.
Language is an integral part ofculture and human culturecannot exist without it.
What we have observed and experienced, aswell as our norms, values, and ideas existsbecause we have learned to identify orexperience these things through language.These things are shared and transmitted fromone generation to another through process ofsocialization. (Panopio et al, 1992)
An approach that may reveal the differencebetween language and culture is to study howchildren in different cultures ( speakingdifferent languages) develop concepts as theygrow up.If language influences the information of aparticular concept, we might expect thatchildren will acquire that concept earlier insocieties where the languages emphasizes thatconcept.
One long-standing claim concerningthe relationship between languageand culture is that the structure oflanguage determines the way inwhich speakers of that languageview the world.
Edward Sapir, a linguist, acknowledged theclose relationship between language andculture, maintaining that they wereinextricably related so that you could notunderstand or appreciate the one without aknowledge of the other.(htttp://wwww.josh manning.com/friends/whorf.htm)
THE LINGUISTIC-RELATIVITY HYPOTHESIS - Asserts that language actually determines the possibilities for a culture’s norms, beliefs and values. - Another acceptable version of the theory recognizes the mutual influences of culture and language.
The linguistic-relativity hypothesisasserts that language determines thoughtand therefore culture. In reality languageand culture influence each other. - Edward Sapir
Every human language allows itsspeakers to express an infinite thoughtsand ideas that can persist even after theiroriginators are gone.This property of human language which isnot shared by any other known species,allows human to transmit their culturefrom one generation to the next.(Eisley,1970 as cited by Kornblum, 1991)
Every society has a culture, no matter how simple the culture may be, and every human being cultured in the sense of participating in some culture or other.
“Aculture is made - - or destroyed - - by itsarticulate voices.”- Ayn Rand(Russian born American Writer and Novelist,1905-1982)