Proper nouns and common nouns
Countable and uncountable nouns
Concrete nouns and abstract nouns
A proper noun is a noun representing
unique entities (the names of particular
people, places, or things)
For example: London, Jupiter, Larry, Toyota.
Common nouns describe a class of
For example: city, planet, person, car.
Concrete nouns refer to physical entities
that can, in principle at least, be
observed by at least one of the senses.
For example: pineapple, pen, table.
Abstract nouns, on the other hand, refer
to abstract objects; that is, ideas or
For example: love, friendship, justice.
Countable nouns are nouns that can take a
plural, can combine with numerals or
quantifiers (e.g., one, two, several, every,
most), and can take an indefinite article (a
For example: a chair, the chair, two chairs.
Uncountable nouns are nouns which we
cannot count. They do not have different
plural forms and do not go with a, an, one,
two, etc. They can be used alone or with
some/any/ much, etc.
For example: milk, history, music.
A(an) (definite article)
The (indefinite article)
Происходит от указательного
местоимения that. Часто переводится
словами этот, эта, это, эти.
Употребляется перед существительными
как в единственном, так и во
Where is the pen? ;What is the highest
mountain in the world? ;the North ;in the
Происходит от числительного
one и означает один из
многих, какой-то, любой.
Перед существительными в
This is an apple.
Если существительное употребляется в
самом обобщённом значении.
Перед именами собственными.
Перед названиями времён года, месяцев
и дней недели.
В случаях, когда речь идет о приеме
пищи, использовании транспорта, а так
же, если речь идет о местах.
Crime is a problem in most big cities.;
England ;I go home by bus.
Singular/Plural Verb Forms
We use singular verb forms with:
› nouns which refer to school subjects (e.g. economics, physics,
mathematics/maths, etc.), sports (e.g. gymnastics, athletics,
etc.), games (e.g. billiards, dominoes, darts, etc.), illnesses (e.g.
measles, mumps, etc.) and with the word news.
For example: The physics test was very difficult. The news is on
TV at six o'clock.
› plural nouns when we talk about an amount of money, a period
of time, weight, distance, etc.
For example: Three thousand miles is the distance from here
› group nouns such as jury, family, team, group, crew, crowd,
class, audience, committee, council, army, club, press,
government, company, etc., when we think of them as a single
We use plural verb forms with:
› nouns such as: clothes, people, police, stairs, (good)
looks, surroundings, outskirts, premises, earnings, wages,
cattle, poultry, etc.
For example: Her earnings are quite high.
› nouns which refer to objects which consist of two parts,
such as: trousers, binoculars, shorts, shoes, gloves,
pyjamas, tights, glasses, earrings, socks, scissors, etc.
We do not use a/an or a number with these words.
We use the phrase a pair of... instead.
anyone/anybody no one/not anyone
We use so:
› with adjectives and adverbs.
The restaurant is so popular (that) you have to book a table
a week in advance.
It was snowing so heavily (that) I couldn't see where I was
› with much/little + uncountable nouns and many/few +
countable nouns in the plural.
There was so much noise (that) I couldn't study.
There was so little space for my car (that) I couldn't park it.
There were so many books to read (that) I didn't know where
There were so few hotels in the village (that) we had to go
› before an adjective which is not followed by a noun.
The car was so expensive (that) I decided not to buy it.
We use such before:
› a(n) + adjective + singular countable noun.
It was such a funny story (that) everyone
› adjective + plural noun/uncountable noun.
It was such bad news (that) she started crying.
› a lot of + plural noun/uncountable noun.
There was such a lot of snow (that) we couldn't
get out of the house.
Much and many are normally used in questions
and negations. Much is used with uncountable
nouns and many is used with plural countable
There isn't much coffee in the jar. Have you got many
How much and how many are used in
How much + uncountable noun -> amount
How many + countable noun -> number
How much sugar do we need? Not much.
How many people came to the party? Twenty.
We use few (= not many, almost none)/a few
(= some/not many) with plural countable
Few people liked the performance. (= almost
none) I've got a few oranges. (= a small
number, not many)
We use little (= not much, almost none)/a little
(= some/not much) with uncountable nouns.
There is little milk left. (= almost none) I'd like a
little sugar in my coffee, please. (= not much)
«Enterprise. Grammar book»
Virginia Evans and Jenni Dooley