FOUNDATIONS OF NUTRITION CARBOHYDRATES:Primary sources of fuel FATS: Essential for brain function, cell membranes, hormones, insulation, a bsorption of vitamins PROTEIN: Structural building materials for cells / secondary fuel source
WE ARE WHAT WE EAT! Our bodies are made up of what we eat and drink.The quality of our health is contingentupon the quality of the buildingmaterials going into our bodies.
Fact: Our diets have changed more in the past 50 years than through all of history!Finding: The diets humans ate for thousands of years -- until the 20th Century -- are what we are GENETICALLY DESIGNED TO EAT, DIGEST and METABOLIZE
Why We Need Protein • Proteins are the primary building blocks that form the body’s infrastructure • Needed for the growth and repair of all human tissues, esp. hair, skin, bones and muscles • All hormone production and balance depends on protein • Needed for the manufacture of antibodies and enzymes We even need protein to THINK! All of our neurotransmitter brain chemicals are derived from protein
Protein for Weight Loss? • High-protein / low-carb diets do produce weight loss, at least initially - Unhealthy if high-fat protein and no good carbs (fruits, veggies & whole grain) • Studies show protein suppresses appetite more than fats or carbs • Digests more slowly than carbs or fatsBest News: Because protein is very slowdigesting, about 20% of its calories are burnedduring digestion!
Protein Sources• Protein is made of amino acids - Building blocks of the body - The body needs 20 amino acids -- eight are “essential” – we must get them from food • Protein is contained in both animal and plant sources - Animal protein is considered “complete” because it contains each of the eight "essential" amino acids - Vegetarians must eat a variety of plant food
Quality Protein SourcesProtein Source Serving Size Approx. Grams of ProteinEggs 2 Eggs 10-12 gmSalmon, Tuna, White fish, Seafood (shrimp, 3-4 ounces 20-30 gm scallops, calamari) (a deck of cards)Poultry (skinless), Lean Beef, Lamb, Lean 3-4 ounces (a deck of 20-30 gm Pork cards)Beans and Lentils 3-4 ounces (a half cup 7-10 gmLow-fat or Skim Milk, Low-fat Yogurt (low- 8 ounces (one cup) 8-12 gm sugar)Low-fat Cottage Cheese 4 ounces (a half-cup) 14-15 gmLow-fat Cheese 1 ounce 7-8 gmNuts - Almonds, Walnuts, Peanuts 1 ounce 5-7 gmSoy Products – Milk / Cheese / Tofu 8 / 2 / 4 ounces 6-8 / 5-6 / 10 gmOatmeal (not instant); High-protein Grains 2/3 cup 4-5 gmPeanut Butter or Almond Butter (natural) 2 tbsp. 8 gm
THE INCREDIBLE EGG!Eggs are one of natures most nutritiousfoods.At only 70 calories each, eggs are“Nutrient Dense” - a lot of nutrition foronly a few calories!Eggs contain the highest quality proteinavailable in any food.Most of the fats in egg yolk areunsaturated -- the type that lowers "bad"LDL cholesterol.New "designer" organic eggs are high inOmega-3 fats
The Best Way to Start the Day BREAKFAST OF CHAMPIONS: • Overnight we use available protein to rebuild our organs, muscles, bones and tissues • By breakfast time, we need to replenish our supply • Try to get about 10-20 grams of protein each morning
Myths and Facts MYTH •Sugar and refined carbohydrates are more likely to make Fat Makes us fat. Us Fat / All •High Blood Sugar Fat is Bad spikes insulin which increases fat storage. •Good fats are essential for health.
The Truth About CarbsCarbohydrates are Sugar! All Carbohydrates break down, through digestion, into blood sugar (glucose) The hormone INSULIN is needed for our cells to use glucose Carbs are the primary sources of fuel for the body The key is how FAST they break down "Slow" Carbs are Good, "Fast" Carbs are Bad
CARBOHYDRATE CHOICES Limit "Fast-digesting" Carbs Also known as simple or refined carbs • Found in processed, refined foods: - "White" Foods – Bread, Rice, Pasta - Soda - Sweetened drinks - Juices - Candy - Cakes, Cookies, Donuts - Chips, Pretzels - Desserts - Sugars, Syrups, Jams - Sweetened Cereal Digest in 5-10 minutes
Refined "Fast" Carbohydrates are a leading cause of Heart Disease!Fast Carbs quickly convert to blood sugarRaise the level of blood fats like TriglyceridesCause Platelets to become unusually stickyReduce levels of "good" HDL CholesterolTrigger the release of excess Insulin
Sugar– 4 grams to a teaspoon1 Packet = a teaspoon = 4grams of sugar40 grams of carbohydrates=10 teaspoons of Sugar! 10 teaspoons of sugar per serving
BEWARE OF HIDDEN SUGARSugar is also hiding in unlikely foods like: • Pasta • Bagels • Bread • White RiceA large plain bagel contains the equivalent of about 14 teaspoons of sugar!A 1-cup serving of pasta contains the equivalent of 10 teaspoons of sugar!
Beware of Hidden Sugar! Food Serving Carb = tsp. Sugar Size grams White Rice 1 cup 45 10½ Pasta 1 cup 40 10 Mashed 1 cup 37 9¼ Potatoes White Bread 2 slices 24 6 TOTAL Cereal 1 cup 32 8 Soda 12 oz. 39 10 Fruit Punch 12 oz. 44 10½
THE BEST CARBS! ―Whole Foods‖ -- Fruits and Vegetables -- contain Antioxidants, Phytonutrients, Vitamins, Minerals, and key nutrients. Fight FREE RADICALS Reduce Oxidative Damage to Cells Slow Down the Aging Process! • Reduce Risk of Heart Disease • Reduce Risk of Cancer5-a-Day isgood advice! • WHOLE FOODS WORK SYNERGISTICALLY 1+1=3 or more
BETTER CARBOHYDRATE CHOICES Eat "Slow-digesting" Carbs Also known as complex carbs • Tend to be found in foods designed by Mother Nature - Most Vegetables - Fruits - Nuts and Seeds - Beans and Lentils - Whole Grain Breads - Whole Wheat Pasta - Oatmeal - Sweet Potatoes - Brown Rice Digest in 20-45 minutes
Its Easy to Add "Slow" Carbs "Slow" Carbs Serving SizesVegetables 1 cup leafy/raw; ½ cup choppedFruits 1 fruit (apple, etc.) or 1cup piecesNuts 1/3 cup (small handful)Beans ½ cup cookedBrown / Wild Rice ½ cup cookedSweet Potatoes 1 small baked; ½ cup mashedOatmeal ½ cup
"Slow-digesting" Carbs are High-Fiber Benefits of Fiber: • Slows the digestive process • Helps stabilize blood sugar levels • Helps cleanse digestive tract The amount of fiber in a product generally indicates how healthy it is – a good “Whole Grain” Bread should have at least 3 grams of fiber per slice Slow carb foods also have Vitamins and powerful Phytonutrients that have significant Anti-Oxidant properties that help protect our cells from damage and disease
Benefits of FiberHelps prevent Heart Disease lowers cholesterolProtects against Diabetes can flatten blood glucose levels after meals may limit insulin levels OatsAlso guards against Barley Diverticulitis Beans Constipation Obesity Soy We should aim for 20-25 grams a day Fruits & Vegetables Rye Krisps
It’s Easy to Add Vegetables!Frozen: As Good orBetter than . . . Fresh
Good Fats are Vital! They form our cell membranes or “Border Guards” Protection
SUPERFATS- OMEGA-3’S“FISH AND FISH OIL: GOOD FOR THE HEART, THE MOOD AND THE MIND” - Dr. Weils Weekly Wellness Bulletin, 5/6/02 Omega-3 fatty acids Salmon • lower LDL • reduce triglyceride levels • inhibit blood clots • maintain elasticity of artery walls • stabilize arrhythmia • ease depression • improve brain functionWalnuts Tuna
TRANS-FAT: The “UGLY” Fats "Hydrogenated / Partially-hydrogenated Vegetable Oil" – Quantity of Trans Fats are now on food Nutritional labels – Jan. 2006 "Fake" Fats: oils artificially "saturated" with hydrogen to be solid Not compatible with our body chemistry Circulates in bloodstream as a solid rather than oil Raises LDL, Lowers HDL, Causes Oxidation Evidence suggests even one gram is too much for a healthy diet – Tufts University School of Nutrition
The Bottom Line Our health is in our control! We have the Power of Choice We can make better decisions that will have a profound and lasting effect on our good health We can all live DYNAMICALLY WELL!