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  1. 1. Should Schools Readdress Segregation? Alessandra Zahran EDFN 500
  2. 2. History of Segregation <ul><li>Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Separate but Equal” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Brown v. Board of Education (1954) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Practice of separate races inherently denied minorities the opportunity to be equal” </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) <ul><li>Summary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Homer Plessy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Louisiana Railroad </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arrested </li></ul></ul><ul><li>IMPACT: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Effectively legalized discrimination based on a person’s skin color. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Racial segregation was effectively protected by the law. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Separate but Equal” </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Brown v. Board of Education (1954) <ul><li>Summary: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oliver L. Brown filed suit when his daughter walked six blocks to the bus stop that would take her to school. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There was an all-white school eight blocks from her home. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Brown v. Board of Education (1954) <ul><li>IMPACT: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Asked to re-examine “separate but equal”. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Does segregation of children in pubic schools solely on the basis of race, even though the physical facilities and other ‘tangible’ factors may be equal, deprive the children of the minority group of equal educational opportunities? We believe that it does” (Brown, 347 U.S. at 493). </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Brown v. Board of Education (1954) <ul><li>IMPACT: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduced two significant ideas that affect education: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. “Established idea of equal education opportunities for all students” (Brown, 347 U.S. at 493) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. “Opportunity for an education” (Brown, 347 U.S. at 493). </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Current Segregation <ul><li>Keyes v. School District No. 1 (1973) </li></ul><ul><li>Miliken v. Bradley (1974) </li></ul><ul><li>Board of Education of Oklahoma v. Powell (1977) </li></ul><ul><li>Freeman v. Pitts (1992) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Keyes v. School District No. 1 (1973) <ul><li>Questioned whether or not schools were responsible for implementing a desegregation plan if racial imbalance was due to housing patterns (Keyes, 413 U.S. at 207) </li></ul><ul><li>If schools did not purposely segregate students based on race, was it responsible for addressing the racial imbalance (Weiler, Walker 347)? </li></ul><ul><li>Verdict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NO! Schools were not required to provide a resegregation plan. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IMPACT </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Miliken v. Bradley (1974) <ul><li>Questioned whether or not “desegregation plans required inter-city school district busing to provide multiple school districts with the capability to desegregate (Weiler, Walker 347). </li></ul><ul><li>Verdict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NO! “The Supreme Court ruled that the use of the inter-school district busing to desegregate could be an improper remedy if there was no evidence that the original school district boundaries were racially motivated (Weiler, Walker 347). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IMPACT </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Board of Education Of Oklahoma v. Powell (1977) <ul><li>Determined whether or not the “obligation of a school district that had been on a desegregation plan once it had been released (Walker, Weiler 348). </li></ul><ul><li>Verdict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NO! The Supreme Court ruled that the unitary status “released the district from its obligation to maintain desegregation” (Orfield) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IMPACT </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Freeman v. Pitts (1992) <ul><li>Added additional restrictions on desegregation plans. </li></ul><ul><li>Verdict: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Supreme Court ruled that it is Constitutional to allow a school district to be released from a portion of its desegregation plan even if the plan had not been completed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IMPACT </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Causes of Resegregation <ul><li>De Jure Segregation </li></ul><ul><li>De Facto Segregation </li></ul><ul><li>Inter School District Disparities </li></ul><ul><li>Intra School District Segregation </li></ul><ul><li>Ability Based Tracking </li></ul><ul><li>Residential Patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Race </li></ul><ul><li>Poverty </li></ul>