Threat against world peace? Or a balancing factor?
Opportunity for the global economy? Or a danger?
Super power of the 21st century? Or just a bubble?
History and development Capitalism has been regarded as unique to Europe and as an organic outgrowth of Western civilisation. The modern world system under the Western-based core, semi-periphery, periphery structure is a contemporary phenomenon.
History and development The rise and fall of ancient civilisations Mesopotamia China Egypt Greece Rome America India
History and development Eurocentrism : practice, conscious or otherwise, of placing emphasis on European (and, generally, Western) concerns, culture and values at the expense of those of other cultures. The rise of the West in the global order and the decline of the East began only in 1800’s. The center of the world is now again moving to the East. Far East.... Far from whom?
中国 Oldest and longest civilisation in the world....
Philosophy Confuciuanism Buddhism Taoism Impact on development
Philosophy Principles of good conduct Practical wisdom Proper social relations
The Imperial Era Unification of China in 221 BC under the First Emperor Qin Shi Huang. “ All Under Heaven” The Qin Dynasty left a legacy of a centralised bureaucratic state. A period that lasted until the fall of the empire in 1911.
The Imperial Era Xia Dynasty (est. 2200 BC — est. 1700 BC) Shang Dynasty (est. 1700 BC — est. 1100 BC) Zhou Dynasty (est. 1100 BC — 256 BC) Qin Dynasty (221 BC - 206 BC) Han Dynasty (206 BC - 220 AD) Three Kingdom Period (220—280) Jin Dynasty (265—420) Southern - Northern Dynasties (420—589) Sui Dynasty (581—618) Tang Dynasty (618—907) Five Dynasties (907—960) Song Dynasty (960—1279) Yuan Dynasty (1206—1368) Ming Dynasty (1368—1644) Qing Dynasty (1616—1911)
Ancient Inventions From 600 AD until 1500 AD, China was among the world’s most technologically advanced societies. Printing Paper Gunpowder Compass Pottery and porcelain Silk
Ancient inventions Grand projects: Great Wall Silk Road Maritime voyages
The aborted commercial revolution Confucian anti-business ethics in the government . By the end of the fifteenth century, imperial subjects were forbidden from either building oceangoing ships or leaving the country. ISOLATION! The declin e of European-style mercantilism and industrialization in China . Science and philosophy were caught in a tight net of t raditions . As a result, imperial decree the great navy was decommissioned; construction of seagoing ships was forbidden; the iron industry gradually declined .
The Western Powers arrive The Portuguese were the pioneers, establishing a foothold at Macao . Later came the British. Trade between China and the West was carried on in the guise of tribute: foreigners were obliged to follow the elaborate, centuries-old ritual imposed on envoys from China's tributary states. (except Russia) There was no conception at the imperial court that the Europeans would expect or deserve to be treated as cultural or political equals.
The Western Powers arrive The market in Europe and America for tea expanded greatly, a new drink in the West. T here was a continuing demand for Chinese silk and porcelain . Pre - industrial China wanted little that the West had to offer . RESULT: Growing trade deficit for the Westerns!
The Western Powers arrive Raw cotton and opium from India became the staple British imports into China. Despite opium was prohibited entry by imperial decree, t he opium traffic was made possible through the connivance of profit-seeking merchants and a corrupt bureaucracy .
Opium Wars 1839-1842 British declare war on China, as a reaction to the banning of opium trade. Unprepared for war and grossly underestimating the capabilities of the enemy, the Chinese were disastrously defeated . China ceded the island of Hong Kong for 99 years ; opened 5 more ports. Abolished the licensed monopoly system of trade . ORIGIN OF CHINESE SCEPTISM ON FOREIGNERS!
Decline of the Chinese Imperium Taiping Rebellion (1850-64): Supressed; not by the government, but by regional armies. Provinces began to assert independence. Defeat in the War against Japan (1894-1895) Boxer Uprising (1898-1900) against foreign influence. Some attempts to reform, taking the Meiji Restoration in Japan as example.
Republican Revolution of 1911 The republican revolution broke out on October 10, 1911, in Wuchang, the capital of Hubei Province led by Sun Yat-sen . On January 1, 1912, Sun was inaugurated in Nanjing as the provisional president of the new Chinese R epublic. On February 12, 1912, the last Qing emperor, Puyi abdicated .
China in Chaos The country disintegrated into literally hundreds of states of varying sizes, each controlled by a warlord and his private army. They fought each other. Two important developments: May Fourth Movement (1919) Kuomintang (Nationalists) getting stronger.
Kuomintang Soviet aid in 1923. Three Principles of the People: Nationalism Democracy Land Reform Sun Yat-sen Chiang Kai-shek Northern Expedition to unite the nation (1928).
Chinese Communist Party Founded in 1921: mostly intellectuals, not much military power. 1923-1931: Soviet control. Unite Communists and Nationalists. Mao Zedong elected as chairman in 1931. Breach with the Nationalists. Strategy: win mass upport among peasants, rather than trying to capture industrial towns. “ People’s War” Guerilla warfare
1934-35: Kuomintang’s pursuit of the Communists.
Communists fled from this extermination campaign.
Communists and Nationalists unite against the common enemy.
1937: Japan launched full scaled war against China.
Rape of Nanking.
Nationalists lose power, Communists win support.
Why did Mao and the Communists gain support?
The inefficiency and corruption of the Nationalists in government.
Little imporvement in factory conditions.
No improvement in peasant poverty.
The Nationalists put up no effective resistance to the Japanese.
People’s Republic of China
Civil war: 1945-1949
PRC proclaimed on 1 October 1949.
Nationalists fled to Taiwan.
People’s Republic of China
A country devastated after the war against Japan and the civil war: destroyed infrastructure, serious food shortages.
Population then: 600 million. Huge task!
Support from peasants and middle class.
Soviet methods; process of trial and error.
People’s Republic of China
State ownership/plan economy
Basic need vs. capital accumulation
Mass line/participation vs. elitism
Commitment to equality, non - exploitation
Hundred Flowers Campaign (1957)
Great Leap Forward
Impossible Targets .
1958 Commune agricultural system established
“ F rom each according to his ability to each according to his need”
N o incentives to work hard: major failure
1959-1961 three lean years
8 million died (12 to 20 million)
Growing opposition from the right wing members of the party ► Mao’s attempt to “save the revolution” by appealing to masses, especially the young people. Red Guards!
Extremists among Red Guards get out of control.
Not only western, but also traditional Chinese values were attacked. Intellectuals sent to labour camps for “re-education”.
It caused great disruption, ruined millions of lives and held up China’s economic development by ten years.
Mao died in 1976.
Rivalry between hard liners and reformists.
Hardliners: Gang of Four
Reformists: Deng Xiaoping
In 1978, Deng gained ascendancy.
A period of dramatic policy changes began.
Deng Xiaoping Four Modernization s Agriculture Industry Science and Te chnology National Defence A ccelerate the modernization process by stepping up the volume of foreign trade by opening up its markets, especially the purchase of machinery from Japan and the West. S peed up economic development through foreign investment, a more open market, access to advanced technologies, and management experience. MARKET SOCIALISM! MAR
Deng Xiaoping Changes introduced during the Cultural Revolution were reversed. Revolutionary committees replaced by elected groups. Property confiscated from capitalists returned to survivors. Greater freedom for intellectuals. But: Mao’s legacy still alive!
Tiananmen Incident Dilemma: Is it possible to give people more economic freedom and yet deny them any choice in other areas such as politics? Economic problems in 1988 and 1989. Effect of glasnost and perestroika in the USSR. Student demonstrations began. On 3-4 June 1989, the PLA violently crushed the demonstrations. 1500-3000 dead.
After Tiananmen Deng’s trip to the s outh ern provinces in 1992 : Speeding up of reforms and economic opening. Deng died in 1997. Third Generation leader: Jiang Zemin.
Jiang Zemin S ubstantial developmental growth through further reforms . P eaceful return of Hong Kong and Macau from European rule . I mproved relations with the outside world . Communist Party maintain ing its tight control over the government. T oo concerned about his personal image at home and too conciliatory towards Russia and the United States abroad. I nability to maintain control on various social imbalances and problems that surfaced during his term.
Hu Jintao President of the People's Republic of China, Chairman of the Central Military Commission and General Secretary of the Communist Party of Chi n a since 2003 . R epresents China's transition of leadership from old, establishment Communists to younger, more pragmatic technocrats. R einstated certain controls on the economy . He is a pragmatist and hard-liner as far as any effort of political reform is concerned. His foreign policy is seen as less conciliatory than that of his predecessor, and China's global influence has increased greatly since he took office.
Foreign Policy IDEOLOGY Original Idea: Imperialism as the last stage of capitalism . Shift from a sense of victimhood to great power mentality. In achieving this goal, China is not pursuing any hegemonic or war-like ambitions . “PEACEFUL RISE” I deology is secondary to advancing national interest .
Foreign Policy GOALS Preservation of China’s Territorial Integrity . Recovery of lost territory . Recognition of China as the sole legitimate government of China . Enhancing China’s International Stature .
Foreign Policy FOUR PERIODS IN CHINESE FOREIGN POLICY Global Power Politics Nationalism and Isolation Bandung Spirit Lean to One Side 1969-..... 1957-1969 1954-1957 1949-1954
Foreign Policy LEAN TO ONE SIDE (1949-1954) Taiwan Issue: US is divided 1950 Treaty with Soviet Union 1950 the Korean War started Direct Confrontation of Chinese Army and the US in Korea stalemate 1954 China attacked Taiwan — US defended signing treaty with ROC
Foreign Policy BANDUNG SPIRIT (1954-1957)
Changing International Atmosphere
Stalin died Korea war finished M any colonies became independent North Vietnam was established
Asian-African Congress: Bandung (Indonesia in 1955) .
Third World “Have-not” s later including Latin America .
Foreign Policy NATIONALISM AND ISOLATION (1957-1969)
Mao’s dissatisfaction with Stalin and Khrushche v.
In 1960 Soviet withdrew technicians and aid.
1962 China-India conflict ending with China’s victory
Chinese Isolationism proceeded during the Cultural Revolution .
Criticism against Soviet Revisionism heightened .
China-Soviet border conflict in 1968-69 .
Foreign Policy GLOBAL POWER POLITICS (1969-....)
USSR became more “dangerous” than USA.
April 1971 Mao invited US table-tennis team to China
1972 Nixon visited China: Shanghai Communiqué
Confirming One China Policy
1979 Full Diplomatic relation s : US diplomacy with ROC ended.
Mutual Defense Treaty was replaced by The Taiwan Relations Act
1971 UN Security Council Permanent member
Foreign Policy GLOBAL POWER POLITICS (1969-....)
Foreign Policy GLOBAL POWER POLITICS (1969-....) 1970’s and 80’s: Seeking to c reate a secure regional and global environment for itself and to foster good relations with countries that could aid its economic development. Approaching West and countering Soviet expansionism . 1990’s: Working to recover relations with foreign countries after the disruption caused by the Tiananmen incident. F ocus ing at improving relations with Russia and Europe in order to counterbalance the United States .
Foreign Policy CURRENT ISSUES Shifting away from the balance strategy to the new security concept: “ the post-Cold War era required nations to move away from thinking in terms of alliances and power blocs and toward thinking in terms of economic and diplomatic cooperation. ” China seeking a higher profile in the UN through its permanent seat on the Security Council and other multilateral organizations. Making efforts to reduce tensions in Asia . Cultivating a more cooperative relationship with members of the Association of Southeast A si an Nations (ASEAN) and working to further strengthen regional cooperation . Improving relations with Russia: Shanghai Cooperation Organization .
Foreign Policy CURRENT ISSUES CHINA-US RELATIONS Economic concerns (value of RMB, textile, etc) Taiwan issue Hu’s visit to USA in 2006. Shift in USA’s perception of China. (Clinton -> Bush) CHINA-JAPAN RELATIONS Ghosts of the past Leadership in Asia
Foreign Policy CURRENT ISSUES CHINA IN AFRICA AND LATIN AMERICA Revival of the Bandung Spirit? or Economic pragmatizm? SECURITY ISSUES Increasing defense budget and militarisation. Arms and nuclear material sales.
Chinese Economy IN 2006... Growth: 10.7 % Trade volume: US$ 1.76 trillion FDI inflow: US$ 69.5 billion OVERHEATING? Macro-controls against rapid growth of investment, excessive monetary credit and trade surplus.
Chinese Economy REASONS OF HIGH GROWTH Increasing inflow of investments (FDI and public investments) High savings rates financing the investments Open economy (Average tariffs went down from 41% in 1992 to 6% after WTO accession) Skilled and inexpensive labour shifting to more productive areas (from agriculture to industry)
Chinese Economy THREATS AGAINST SUSTAINABILITY Weakness of the banking sector (4 state banks dominating the sector). Corruption. Inequality in income distribution and regional disparities. Environmental problems. Lack of transparency in bureaucracy and the judiciary system.
Turkish-Chinese Relations Diplomatic relations established on 4 August 1971. First visit: President Evren to Beijing in 1982. Prime Minister Özal to Beijing in 1985. President Li Xiannian to Ankara in 1986. Premier Zhao Ziyang to Ankara in 1986. Joint Comminiqué on Bilateral Competition during Jiang Zemin’s visit to Turkey in April 2002.