Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
China and the Changing Geopolitics of the Arctic
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×

Introducing the official SlideShare app

Stunning, full-screen experience for iPhone and Android

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

China and the Changing Geopolitics of the Arctic

1,928
views

Published on

"Asia Talks" series, Bogazici University Asian Studies Center, Istanbul, Turkey, 23 December 2011.

"Asia Talks" series, Bogazici University Asian Studies Center, Istanbul, Turkey, 23 December 2011.

Published in: News & Politics

0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,928
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Altay Atlı Boğaziçi University Dept. of Political Science and Int’l Relations Asian Studies Center Boğaziçi University Asian Studies Center, “Asia Talks” series, December 23, 2011.
  • 2.  
  • 3. “ During my fifteen years in office, I have received more delegations from China than from the U.S., Britain, Germany, France, Italy and Spain combined.” Ólafur Ragnar Grímsson (President of Iceland) Chinese Embassy in Reykjavik... The biggest in town... Chinese financial bailout for Iceland during the crisis (€ 400 million). Growing Chinese interest for buying land in Iceland (e.g. r ecent bid by Beijing Zhongkun Group).
  • 4.
    • Arctic ice is melting due to global warming.
    • Prospect of the Arctic Sea being navigable during summer months.
    • Geopolitical implications:
    1. Economic, political, military and environmental challenges to governance. 2. Access to untapped energy resources. 3. Shorter shipping routes between Asia-Europe and Asia-America.
  • 5.
    • According to the U.S. Geological Survey, the Arctic region has:
      • 90 billion barrels of oil.
      • 47.2 trillion cubic meters of natural gas.
      • 45 billion barrels of natural gas liquids.
      • 84% can be found in offshore areas.
    • Problems:
      • Drilling and transportation of hydrocarbons in the Arctic is too costly.
      • More sophisticated ice-capable technology needed.
      • New international legal and regulatory framework needed to clearly delineate the maritime boundaries and continental shelves.
      • Environmental issues need to be addressed first.
  • 6.
    • Arctic Bridge
    • Northern Sea Route
    • Northwest Passage
  • 7. TOKYO - LONDON Suez Canal route: 13,000 miles.
  • 8. TOKYO - LONDON Suez Canal route: 13,000 miles. Panama Canal route: 15,000 miles.
  • 9. TOKYO - LONDON Suez Canal route: 13,000 miles. Panama Canal route: 15,000 miles. Northwest Passage: 8,500 miles.
  • 10. TOKYO - LONDON Suez Canal route: 13,000 miles. Panama Canal route: 15,000 miles. Northwest Passage: 8,500 miles. Northern Sea route: 8,000 miles.
  • 11.
    • Primary:
    • Shorter shipping routes between China-Europe and China-America.
    • Potential to save $60-120 billion annually.
    • Lower fuel costs.
    • Lower insurance costs.
    • Greater competitive advantage for Chinese exports.
    • Secondary:
    • Source of hydrocarbons and other raw materials.
    • Problem: China is not a littoral state.
    • Problem: China does not have the technology for exploration and production
    • under Arctic conditions.
    • China needs to partner with other countries.
    • Possibly:
    • Establishing a naval foothold in northern Atlantic (in Iceland maybe??)
  • 12.
    • China has an increasing influence on global affairs.
    • China is a major exporting country.
    • China has a strong shipping industry.
    • China’s polar expedition and research capabilities are increasing.
  • 13.
    • Experience in the Antarctic.  27 expeditions and 3 research stations since 1984.
    • Focus on the Arctic since 1995.  4 expeditions so far.
    • Arctic research station “ Yellow River “ ( 黄 河 ) active since 2004.
    • The world ‘ s largest non-nuclear icebreaker (research vessel): “ Snow Dragon “ ( 雪龙 )  Second vessel on the way.
    • Institutions:
      • Chinese Arctic and Antarctic Administration.
      • Polar Research Institute of China.
      • China Institute for Marine Affairs.
      • Institute of Oceanology (under CASS).
      • Arctic research centers in various universities.
  • 14.
    • Svalbard Treaty (1920)
    • UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) (1982)
    • The Arctic Council (1996)
    • International Maritime Organization Guidelines for Ships Operating in Arctic Ice-Covered Waters (2002)
  • 15.  
  • 16.