Cloud computing altanai bisht , collge 2nd year , part i


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Cloud computing users can avoid capital expenditure (CapEx) on hardware, software, and services when they pay a provider only for what they use.

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Cloud computing altanai bisht , collge 2nd year , part i

  1. 1. Cloud computing ALTANAI BISHT . BTECH IT ,II YR VELTECH MULTITECH DR Rangarajan DR Sakunthala ENGINEERING COLLEGE Abstract “Cloud computing is a paradigm shift that enables scalable processing and storage over distributed, networked commodity machines. Enterprises that want to reap the benefits of cloud computing must realize that the decision to migrate is neither quick nor easy. This paper provides a basic overview of cloud technology and reviews several deployment options that can be described as instantiations of the cloud. Potential advantages of using cloud computing—including scalability, flexibility, and reduced capital and operating expenses—are reviewed, as are hurdles to successful deployment. The latter include regulatory, performance, security, and availability issues. “ Introduction Contents • Introduction • Influence on IT concern • Variations with other computing • Characteristics • Effeciency • Criticism • Conclusion
  2. 2. Cloud computing is a paradigm of computing in which dynamically scalable and often virtualized resources are provided as a service over the Internet. Users need not have knowledge of, expertise in, or control over the technology infrastructure in the "cloud" that supports them. Components of cloud computing: 1. Infrastructure as a service (IaaS) 2.Platform as a service (PaaS) 3.Software as a service (SaaS) Cloud computing services often provide common business applications online that are accessed from a web browser, while the software and data are stored on the servers. INFLUENCE ON IT CONCERNS Cloud computing has become a major force for change in how web design, configure, provision, and manage IT infrastructure. Instead of custom- provisioning individual systems or clusters, an architect or administrator is expected to have hundreds, or even thousands of resources under their control. A variety of approaches have emerged to do this. On one hand, services such as Amazon's SimpleDBor Goggle’s App Engine completely abstract the infrastructure away from the developer, outsourcing it to Amazon and Google, respectively. On the other hand, Amazon's Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) provides a raw interface to provisioning and managing Linux instances. The reason for such disparity and confusion is that the Cloud is multi- disciplinary. It straddles the areas of virtualization, IT management, clustering, Services-Oriented Architecture (SOA), and Web Architecture, with the overall goal of providing easily accessible interfaces for using and manipulating infrastructure. VARIATIONS WITH OTHER COMPUTINGS Grid computing "A form of distributed computing whereby a 'super and virtual computer' is composed of a cluster of networked, loosely coupled computers, acting in concert to perform very large tasks". Utility computing “The packaging of computing resources, such as computation and storage, as a metered service similar to a traditional public utility such as electricity”.
  3. 3. Autonomic computing "Computer systems capable of self- management". Many cloud computing deployments as of 2009 depend on grids, have autonomic characteristics, and bill like utilities—but cloud computing tends to expand what is provided by grids and utilities. Some successful cloud architectures have little or no centralized infrastructure or billing systems whatsoever, including peer-to-peer networks such as BitTorrent and Skype. Furthermore, many analysts are keen to stress the evolutionary, incremental pathway between grid technology and cloud computing, tracing roots back to application service providers (ASPs) in the 1990s and the parallels to SaaS, often referred to as applications on the cloud. Characteristics Cloud computing customers do not generally own the physical infrastructure serving as host to the software platform in question. Instead, they avoid capital expenditure by renting usage from a third-party provider. They consume resources as a service and pay only for resources that they use. Many cloud- computing offerings employ the utility computing model, which is analogous to how traditional utility services (such as electricity) are consumed, while others bill on a subscription basis. Sharing "perishable and intangible" computing power among multiple tenants can improve utilization rates, as servers are not unnecessarily left idle (which can reduce costs significantly while increasing the speed of application development). A side effect of this approach is that overall computer usage rises dramatically, as customers do not have to engineer for peak load limits. Additionally, "increased high-speed bandwidth" makes it possible to receive the same response times from centralized infrastructure at other sites. Efficiency Cloud computing users can avoid capital expenditure (CapEx) on hardware, software, and services when they pay a provider only for what they use. Consumption is usually billed on a utility (e.g. resources consumed, like electricity) or subscription (e.g. time based, like a newspaper) basis with little or no upfront cost. A few cloud providers are now beginning to offer the service for a flat monthly fee as opposed to on a utility billing basis. Other benefits of this time sharing style approach are low barriers to entry, shared infrastructure and costs, low management overhead, and immediate access to a broad range of applications. Users can generally terminate the contract at any time (thereby avoiding return on investment risk and uncertainty) and the services are often covered by service level agreements (SLAs) with financial penalties. Although companies might be able to save on upfront capital expenditures, they might not save much and might actually pay more for operating expenses. In situations where the capital expense would be relatively small, or where the organization has more flexibility in their capital budget than their operating budget, the cloud model might not make great fiscal sense. Other factors impacting the scale of any
  4. 4. potential cost savings include the efficiency of a company’s data center as compared to the cloud vendor’s, the company's existing operating costs, the level of adoption of cloud computing, and the type of functionality being hosted in the cloud. Architecture The majority of cloud computing infrastructure, as of 2009, consists of reliable services delivered through data centers and built on servers with different levels of virtualization technologies. The services are accessible anywhere that provides access to networking infrastructure. Clouds often appear as single points of access for all consumers' computing needs. Commercial offerings are generally expected to meet quality of service (QoS) requirements of customers and typically offer SLAs. Open standards are critical to the growth of cloud computing, and open source software has provided the foundation for many cloud computing implementations. Criticism Because cloud computing does not allow users to physically possess the storage of their data (the exception being the possibility that data can be backed up to a user-owned storage device, such as a USB flash drive or hard disk), it does leave responsibility of data storage and control in the hands of the provider. Responsibility for backup data, disaster recovery and other static "snapshots" has been a long-standing concern for both outsourced as well as resident IT systems. Additional issues are raised around process (methods, functions, transactions, etc.) visibility and transportability given the more complex nature of cloud and web service systems. Organizations that rely upon these systems and services now have to consider the additional responsibility to be able to understand the services being offered (transforms) in order to be able to react to changes in contracted services, compatibility to competing services, and be able to perform their fiduciary responsibility for business continuity (disaster recovery, interruption of service) and business agility (ability to engage competitive services with least impact to operations). QoS (Quality of Service), SLAs (Service Level Agreements) and other parametric behaviors need to be specified as well as monitored for compliance. Although this is a new area, tested patterns for service delivery can be adapted to allow for monitoring and quality control. Conclusion The revolution of cloud computing has created a great effect in the field of internet and the service to the naïve users has also improved a lot on both quality and efficiency. The expenditure to the IT companies has also brought down due to the cloud computing. In future the service can be improved to over come its current defects. References a. ki/Datamining
  5. 5. b. tamining c. arehousing d. warehousing
  6. 6. b. tamining c. arehousing d. warehousing