Levels of thinking and reasoning [modo de compatibilidad]Presentation Transcript
Levels of Thinking andReasoning The Bloom-Marzano Hierarchy
APHORISM OF THE MONTH If you always do what you always did, you will always get what you always got.
APHORISM OF THE MONTHOne of the defining characteristics of human beings is held to be their capacityto learn from experience, yet how often is the response to delivery failure toincrease the exhortation just to do better or work smarter, rather than think ofanother way of tackling the issue? Even the current fashion for scenarioplanning tends to reinforce this. It is customary to have three scenarios: business as usual smart working with performance management doing things differentlyThe problem is that, like circus animals trained to jump through hoops, healthplanners and managers don’t know what they don’t know, and may have alimited repertoire of response to complex problems. The only way to break newground in to lateral problem solving is by creating environments that embracediverse analysis, ideas, and experiences. JRA
Objectives for Today1. Define the levels of thinking and reasoning used in the Standard Course of Study and testing at the Altamira International School.2. Generate content-specific examples of the levels of thinking and reasoning.3. Apply the levels of thinking and reasoning to classroom practice.4. Evaluate effective use of the levels of thinking and reasoning in classroom practice.
Pre-Assessment On your own paper, construct a circle map. Within your circle write down all you know about Bloom’s Bloom’s Taxonomy. Taxonomy
Bloom’s Taxonomy 1956: Benjamin Bloom publishes a small volume called Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, The Classification of Educational Goals, Handbook I: Cognitive Domain.
Bloom’s Taxonomy Educators use the taxonomy to write instructional objectives. Benjamin Bloom Bloom publishes Assessments wanted a way to his Taxonomy of are designed classify educational Educational according to goals. Objectives. the taxonomy. State curricula were written according to the taxonomy.
Bloom’s Taxonomy Bloom’s Taxonomy was updated in 2001 by Anderson and Krathwol. ?
Taxonomy Redefined Problems with Bloom’s taxonomy: Oversimplifies the nature of thought and its relationship to learning (Furst, 1994). The taxonomy implied a hierarchy of thought processes running from lower to higher which did not hold up in research studies (Marzano, 2001).
Learning: What We Now Know Learning must take Learning must take into account the into account the learner’s control of types of knowledge his or her own as well as the thinking as well as thinking processes the role of emotion required for and interest in manipulating that acquiring knowledge. knowledge.
The Birth of Marzano’s Hierarchy Robert Marzano set out to repair the deficiencies of Bloom’s Taxonomy in the 1990s. The result was Designing a New Taxonomy of Educational Objectives (2001). Revised as The New Taxonomy of Educational Objectives (2006)
Marzano and Altamira Altamira’s program requires testing, and teachers, as test designers, need a taxonomy for aligning the goals and objectives to test questions so that they could teach what they test and test what they teach.
Marzano and AltamiraMisconception Alert: Instead, AIS has hybridized Marzano’s work with the original Altamira will not Bloom’s Taxonomy. fully adopt Marzano’s hierarchy.
Reflection What is the most important “big idea” uncovered in the previous slides? What would be different about the way we teach and assess if we all knew this “big idea”? In groups, come to consensus about one “big idea” from the material.
A Closer Look at Bloom and Marzano Who can name the levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy? Knowledge Comprehension Bloom’s Application Taxonomy Analysis Synthesis Evaluation
Similarities and Differences In groups, construct a Double-Bubble map comparing the Bloom Hierarchy to the hybrid Marzano-Bloom hierarchy.
Bloom – Marzano Hybrid:Definitions LEVEL DEFINITIONKnowing Gathering, storing, and recalling informationOrganizing Arranging and classifying informationApplying Using information in a new situationAnalyzing Examining relationships among partsGenerating Producing new meaning or ideasIntegrating Combining informationEvaluating Judging the quality of information
Bloom-Marzano Hybrid:Definitions LEVEL DEFINITIONKnowing Gathering, storing, and recalling information Low-LevelOrganizing Arranging and classifying Cognitive information TasksApplying Using information in a new situationAnalyzing Examining relationships among partsGenerating Producing new meaning or ideas High-Level Cognitive Combining information TasksIntegratingEvaluating Judging the quality of information
Part 1: Low-Level Cognitive Tasks LEVEL DEFINITIONKnowing Gathering, storing, and recalling informationOrganizing Arranging and classifying informationApplying Using information in a new situation
What does “Knowing” mean? describe identify label use the senses to observe Knowing recall information store list information in memory
“Knowing” Objectives ESL 3, NL 3.02 – Recognize some high frequency words in simple or patterned text. Science 2, 1.03 – Observe the different stages of an insect life cycle. Social Studies 5, 4.03 – Describe the contributions of people of diverse cultures throughout the history of the United States.
“Knowing” Questions What is federalism? A. a form of government with elected representatives B. a division of power between the national and state governments C. a belief in the idea of national sovereignty D. a form of government in which elected officials make all economic decisions
“Knowing” Questions What led to the decline of soapstone mining? A. Dwindling supplies B. Discovery of mica C. Preference for pottery D. Interest in gold mining
What does “Organizing” mean? comparing arrange sequencinginformation in order or by in an a criteria ordered Organizing way changing contrasting the format of information classifying
“Organizing” Objectives Social Studies 6, 9.01 – Trace the historical development of governments . . . ELA 8, 3.03 – Evaluate and create arguments by arranging details, examples, and reasons effectively. Advanced Functions, 1.02 – Compare distributions of univariate data.
“Organizing” Questions Why are parallel circuits, rather than series circuits, commonly used in wiring houses? A. They allow appliances to operate separately. B. They are cheaper. C. They have a higher total resistance. D. The voltage drop varies with each resistor.
What does “Applying” mean? knowing when to use knowledge transferring knowledgeusing prior from oneknowledge field to in a new Applying another situation recognizing bringing similarities together and information differences to solve between problems situations
“Applying” Objectives Healthy Living K, 2.06 – Demonstrate how to get help in an emergency. Theatre Arts 6, 3.02 -- Plan and create a simple set for formal or informal dramatic presentations. Spanish for Native Speakers 1, 3.07 -- Apply understanding of conventional written and spoken expressions in a variety of settings by using appropriate and exact words to influence reactions, perceptions, and beliefs.
“Applying” Questions Which propaganda technique is represented by the quote “My opponent is soft on crime!”? A. Name calling B. Bandwagon C. Glittering generality D. Stacked cards
“Applying” Questions A boulder falls from a cliff. What is the boulder’s acceleration during the fifth second of the fall? A. 2.0 m/s2 B. 9.8 m/s2 C. 20.0 m/s2 D. 98 m/s2
Review and Application In your groups, you will be given some sample objectives and test questions. Identify the thinking skill level for the objectives and test questions. Be prepared to defend your thoughts to the whole group.
Categorizing Objectives andQuestions - A Caveat OFTEN, categorizing a question or an objective requires that you understand the amount of prior knowledge needed to process the objective at a particular level. Objectives in higher grades often assume prior knowledge, so what may be “knowing” to you is categorized as “applying” by them.
Strange Verbs – Skills and CognitiveDemands? To what levels do you assign the following verbs? Acquire... Verbs that often call for Interact... the student to do something imply Share knowledge... procedural knowledge. Investigate... Procedural knowledge Develop... requires the use of information to complete a Explore... task. Many times this is Compose... nothing more than application. Observe...
Part 2: High-Level Cognitive Tasks LEVEL DEFINITIONAnalyzing Examining relationships among partsGenerating Producing new meaning or ideasIntegrating Combining informationEvaluating Judging the quality of information
What does “Analyzing” mean? identifying the attributes of things cause and effect identifying parts of objects identifying Analyzing logical errors identifying identifying relationships the main and patterns idea
“Analyzing” Objectives Physics, 8.01 – Analyze the nature of electrical charges. US History, 6.01 – Examine the factors that led to the United States taking an increasingly active role in world affairs. Visual Arts 7, 3.04 -- Explore and discuss the value of intuitive perceptions in the problem-solving process.
“Analyzing” Questions A cell with 5% solute concentration is placed in a beaker with a 1% solute concentration. What will happen to the cell over time? A. The cell will gain H2O and expand. B. The cell will lose H2O and shrink. C. The cell will both gain and lose equal amounts of H2O; thus, it will remain the same size. D. The cell will undergo no exchange of H2O with its surroundings.
“Analyzing” Questions Why did the horse in “The Runaway Stallion” most likely run through the water to the opposite bank? A. He was afraid that Jeff was trying to capture him. B. He wanted the oats in the bucket. C. He needed to cool down in the water before eating. D. He was frightened by a noise that Hank made.
What does “Generating” mean? producing new meaning or exploring ideas hypothetical situations inferring new meaning drawing a Generating conclusion predicting outcomes elaborating by adding examples or details
“Generating” Objectives Theatre Arts 6, 5.04 -- Infer meaning from a script to create characters. Science 8, 5.05 -- Use maps, ground truthing and remote sensing to make predictions regarding changes over time, land use, urban sprawl, and resource management. Civics, 2.02 – Explain how the United States Constitution grants and limits the authority of public officials and government agencies.
“Generating” Questions Which best explains why the author includes this line in the play? HANNAH: There are tougher questions we have to deal with than baseball movies . . . or which river is the longest . . . or . . . A. To create sympathy for Jay B. To reveal Hannah’s wisdom C. To foreshadow the choice Jay will have to make D. To reduce the tension building between Jay and Hannah
“Generating” Questions While cleaning a saltwater aquarium, students placed the aquarium plants in a container of distilled water. What effect will this have on the plants? A. The plant cells will separate. B. The plant cells will shrink. C. The plant cells will swell. D. The plant cells will remain the same.
What does “Integrating” mean? connecting and combining information Integrating generalizingsummarizing from examples or details restructuring ideas to include new information
“Integrating” Objectives ESL 9-12, IH 4.05 -- Write an organized and focused composition with supporting details on familiar and previously studied topics. US History, 12.01 – Summarize significant events in foreign policy since the Vietnam War. Science 7, 5.05 -- Summarize the genetic transmittance of disease.
“Integrating” Questions Which of the following statements concerning diffusion and active transport is correct? A. Both diffusion and active transport require cell energy. B. Neither diffusion nor active transport require cell energy. C. Diffusion requires cell energy while active transport does not. D. Active transport requires cell energy while diffusion does not.
“Integrating” Questions A house plant is wilting; however, it is still green. What vital resource is it most likely lacking? A. Plant food B. Water C. Sunlight D. Air
What does “Evaluating” mean? judging the reasonableness of information establishing criteria for Evaluating checking the judging accuracy of claims rating ideas by quality
“Evaluating” Objectives Civics, 6.08 – Evaluate methods used by society to address criminal and anti-social behaviors. Algebra II, -- 2.05 Use rational equations to model and solve problems; justify results. ELA 7, 4.03 -- Develop the stance of a critic by considering and presenting alternative points of view or reasons, remaining fair-minded and open to other interpretations, and creating a critical response/review of a work/topic.
“Evaluating” Questions The scatter plot shows the number of absences in a week for classes of different sizes. Trevor concluded that there is a positive correlation between class size and the number of absences. Which statement best describes why Trevor’s conclusion was incorrect? A. The largest class does not have the most absences. B. The smallest class does not have the least number of absences. C. The data show no relationship between class size and number of absences. D. The data show a negative relationship between class size and number of absences.
“Evaluating” Questions Which of the following pieces of information is most helpful in supporting the writer’s request for a replacement? A. The writer knew she had the perfect gift for her mother. B. The writer gave the hand vacuum to her mother for her fortieth birthday. C. The vacuum had no suction. D. The writer and her father read the owner’s manual together.
Review and Application In your groups, will you be given some sample objectives and test questions. Identify the thinking skill level for the objectives and test questions. Be prepared to defend your thoughts to the whole group.
Thoughts for the Classroom Should teachers start at the bottom of the hierarchy and work their way up to more complex levels of thinking? In other words, should we always start with knowing and end up at evaluating?
Some Thoughts for theClassroom “[The] view [that learners must start at the bottom and work toward the top] may be characterized as the ‘climbing the ladder’ model of cognition.” This model is “at odds with contemporary views of the learning process” and may confine students to a boring regimen of “low-level, skill-drill activities, rote memorization of discrete facts, and mind-numbing test prep worksheets.”
Some Thoughts for theClassroom Teachers should incorporate Marzano’s vocabulary into questioning: »Use a variety of questions at different cognitive levels. »Ask different students questions. »Vary the questions asked for each student. »Challenge all students to answer complex questions.
Some Thoughts for theClassroom Use the Marzano structure for developing assessment items: »Write or re-write multiple choice items to match the hierarchy. »Construct open-ended items according to the cognitive demands of the objective.
Some Thoughts for theClassroom Embed using the vocabulary of the hierarchy in everyday work without focusing on the structure itself: »Students do not need to know the levels of thinking and reasoning. »Students do need to know what common terms like “verify,” “assess,” “analyze,” and “infer” mean.
Some Thoughts for theClassroom Does posting the objective daily mean that the teachers or the students actually understand it? »NO! NO! NO! NO! »The evidence of understanding of the objective comes from how it is “unpacked” in the classroom. »Teachers should work at making objectives “student” friendly and encouraging students to personalize objectives.
Marzano and CITW How does this hierarchy connect to Marzano’s Classroom Instruction that Works?Similarities and Comparing & Classifying =Differences Organizing Metaphors & Analogies = Analyzing and GeneratingNonlinguistic All forms of NR can be used at eachRepresentation level of the hierarchy.Setting Objectives and Objectives (NC SCOS)Providing Feedback Feedback = Analyzing and Evaluating
A Few Big Ideas Categorizing an Since the Bloom- objective or a question Marzano hierarchy is often depends on the the language of the interpretation of that SCOS of testing, it is item as well as the essential that it be background understood and knowledge of the applied to classroom student. practice.
A Few Big Ideas Objectives must be The NC SCOS did not “unpacked” to get at adopt the full Marzano what is implied for hierarchy, so teachers students to know, must pay attention to understand, and be other critical issues able to do in the such as metacognition, classroom. emotion, and interest and the roles they play in learning.
Conclusion -- Administration As a result of this information, How will my administrative practice change? What will I look for in lesson plans and observations? How has my understanding of the curriculum and testing changed?
Conclusion -- Teachers As a result of this information, What will I do differently in my classroom assessments? What will I do with my lesson planning? How will I “unpack” my curriculum to get at what students should know, understand, and be able to do?