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  • 1. Improving Learning: Best Practices for TeachingTeaching Workshop October 6, 2009
  • 2. Definition of “Good Teaching” “Good teaching is the creating of those circumstances that lead to significant learning in others.”learning in others.” --Finkel, Teaching with Your Mouth Shut
  • 3. Significant Learning • Thinking back over your whole life, what were the two or three most significant learning experiences you ever had?learning experiences you ever had? That is, list the moments (or events) in which you discovered something of lasting significance in your life
  • 4. Questions to ask yourself: • Did it take place in a classroom? • Did it take place in a school? • Was a professional teacher instrumental in making the learning experience happen? • Was a teacher-like figure (e.g., coach, minister,• Was a teacher-like figure (e.g., coach, minister, school counselor, theater director) instrumental in making the learning experience happen? • If the answer to 3 or 4 is “yes,” then what did the teacher (or other person) actually do to help you learn? • In general, what factors were instrumental in bringing about the learning?
  • 5. Workshop Ground Rules • Take responsibility for your own learning. • Respect participants and presenter. • Participate. • Ask questions. • Listen to learn. • Honor time limits. • Silence cell phones.
  • 6. QuotationQuotation HookHook • Agree 66 • Disagree • Somewhat agree
  • 7. Quotation HookQuotation Hook “Using backward design in curriculum planning helps to avoid the • Agree • Disagree helps to avoid the twin sins of activity- oriented and coverage-oriented instruction.” Grant Wiggins, Jay McTighe “Understanding by Design” • Disagree • Somewhat agree
  • 8. Quotation HookQuotation Hook Understanding [is] “the capacity to apply facts, concepts and skills • Agree • Disagree concepts and skills in new situations in appropriate ways.” ---Dr. Howard Gardner • Somewhat agree
  • 9. Quotation HookQuotation Hook • Agree • Disagree “The primary purpose of classroom assessment is to inform teaching and improve learning, 99 • Somewhat agree improve learning, not to sort and select students or to justify a grade.” ---Jay McTighe and Steven Ferrara Assessing Learning in the Classroom
  • 10. Quotation HookQuotation Hook • Agree • Disagree “Only in education, never in the life of farmer, sailor, merchant, physician 1010 • Disagree • Somewhat agree merchant, physician or scientist, does knowledge mean primarily a store of information.” ---John Dewey Democracy and Education
  • 11. Quotation HookQuotation Hook • Agree • Disagree “For every complex problem, there• Disagree • Somewhat agree problem, there is a solution that is simple, neat, and wrong.” ---H. L. Menken
  • 12. 21st Century Skills Accountability & AdaptabilityAccountability & Adaptability Communication SkillsCommunication Skills Creativity & Intellectual CuriosityCreativity & Intellectual Curiosity Critical Thinking, Systems ThinkingCritical Thinking, Systems ThinkingCritical Thinking, Systems ThinkingCritical Thinking, Systems Thinking Information & Media LiteracyInformation & Media Literacy Interpersonal and Collaborative SkillsInterpersonal and Collaborative Skills Problem SolvingProblem Solving SelfSelf--DirectionDirection Social ResponsibilitySocial Responsibility www.21stcenturyskills.orgwww.21stcenturyskills.org
  • 13. 21st Century Learning – Check List • It is never just about content. Learners are trying to get better at something. • It is never just routine. It requires thinking with what you know and pushing further. • It is never just problem solving. It also involves problem finding.• It is never just problem solving. It also involves problem finding. • It’s not just about right answers. It involves explanation and justification. • It is not emotionally flat. It involves curiosity, discovery, creativity, and community. • It’s not in a vacuum. It involves methods, purposes, and forms of one of more disciplines, situated in a social context.
  • 14. Factors Influencing Achievement 1. Guaranteed and Viable Curriculum 2. Challenging Goals and Effective Feedback 3. Parent and Community Involvement 4. Safe and Orderly Environment 5. Collegiality and ProfessionalismSchool 6. Instructional Strategies 7. Classroom Management 8. Classroom Curriculum DesignTeacher Student 9. Home Environment 10. Learning Intelligence/ Background Knowledge 11 Motivation
  • 15. Instructional Design Questions 1. What will I do to establish and communicateestablish and communicate learning goals, tracktrack student progress, and celebratecelebrate success? 2. What will I do to help students effectively interactinteract with new knowledge? 3. What will I do to help students practice and deepenpractice and deepen their understanding of new knowledge? 4. What will I do to help students generate and test hypothesesgenerate and test hypotheses about new knowledge? (Instruction) (Instruction) (Instruction) (Instruction)knowledge? 5. What will I do to engageengage students? 6. What will I do to establish or maintain classroom rules or proceduresrules or procedures? 7. What will I do to recognize and acknowledge adherenceadherence and lack oflack of adherenceadherence to classroom rules and procedures? 8. What will I do to establish and maintain effective relationshipsrelationships with students? 9. What will I do to communicate high expectationshigh expectations for allall students? 10. What will I do to develop effective lessonseffective lessons, organized into a cohesive unitcohesive unit? (Instruction) (Classroom Management) (Classroom Management) (Classroom Management) (Classroom Management) (Classroom Management) (Lesson and Unit Design)
  • 16. Let’s Discuss the Shifts
  • 17. Constructivism • learning is based on students’ active participation in problem-solving • involving critical thinking • learning activity is relevant and engaging • “constructing” their own knowledge by testing ideas and approaches based on their prior knowledge and experience • applying these to a new situation • integrating the new knowledge gained with pre-existing intellectual constructs
  • 18. Creating Conducive Environments • Motivation or personal importance • Development of self-efficacy of the learner • How student feels about the• How student feels about the learning • Brain-friendly environment – Sense of belonging – Support for achievement – Sense of empowerment • Tileston 10 Best Teaching Practices.
  • 19. Natural Critical Learning Environment • 5 common elements: – Intriguing question or problem – Guidance in helping the students understand the significance of the question – Engages students in some higher-order intellectual activity: encouraging them to compare, apply, evaluate, analyze, andencouraging them to compare, apply, evaluate, analyze, and synthesize, but, never only to listen and remember. Often that means asking student to make and defend judgments and then providing them with some basis for making the decision. – Environment also helps students answer the question. – Leaves students with a question: “What’s the next question?” • Ken Bain
  • 20. BRAIN RESEARCH •Know the place of detailed facts, figures and data as part of a greater context, concept or application. •Understand that learners need time to process, reflect, sort, form patterns, discover or develop meaning. •Engage learners in structures for processing beyond the level of•Engage learners in structures for processing beyond the level of recall and recitation of data. It calls for context, motion, personal meaning, and/or application. •View learning as a process based on the richness of personal experiences each student brings to the situation.
  • 21. Academic Learning Time David Berliner • Pace- Is each learner actively engaged? Timing and delivery paced well? • Focus- Are learning activities within core content and aimed at helping them get better atand aimed at helping them get better at something? • Stretch- Are learners being optimally challenged? Not too easy or difficult. • Stickiness- Is activity designed such that it will stick and not be memorized and forgotten?
  • 22. Address Different Learning Styles • Auditory • Visual • Kinesthetic• Kinesthetic
  • 23. Auditory Preferences – Like to talk and enjoy activities in which they can talk to their peers or give their opiniontheir opinion – Encourage people to laugh – Are good storytellers – Usually like listening activities – Can memorize easily
  • 24. Teaching to Auditory Learners • Use direct instruction, with guiding learning through application and practice • Employ peer tutoring, in which students help each other practice the learning • Use group discussions, brainstorming, & Socratic seminars. • Verbalize while learning, and encourage students to verbalize as well • Use cooperative learning activities that provide for student interaction.
  • 25. Visual preferences • Watch speakers’ faces • Like to work puzzles • Notice small details• Notice small details • Like for the teacher to use visuals when talking • Like to use nonlinguistic organizers (frames, concept maps, mind maps, venn diagrams, fishbone)
  • 26. Teaching to Visual Learners • Use visuals when teaching • Use visual organizers • Show students the patterns in learning• Show students the patterns in learning • Use metaphors
  • 27. Example of a Frame CriteriaCriteria Scholarly JournalsScholarly Journals Popular MagazinesPopular Magazines FormatFormat Grave, seriousGrave, serious Slick, glossySlick, glossy GraphicsGraphics Graphs, chartsGraphs, charts Photos, illustrationsPhotos, illustrations SourcesSources Footnotes, bibliographyFootnotes, bibliography Obscure, rarely citedObscure, rarely cited AuthorsAuthors Scholars, researchersScholars, researchers Staff or freeStaff or free--lancelanceAuthorsAuthors Scholars, researchersScholars, researchers Staff or freeStaff or free--lancelance LanguageLanguage Terminology, jargonTerminology, jargon SimpleSimple PurposePurpose Inform, report researchInform, report research Entertain, persuadeEntertain, persuade PublishersPublishers Professional groupsProfessional groups ProfitProfit AdvertisingAdvertising SelectiveSelective ExtensiveExtensive ExamplesExamples Harvard Business ReviewHarvard Business Review JAMAJAMA People WeeklyPeople Weekly Sports IllustratedSports Illustrated
  • 28. Example of a Spider Map • Types of Contemporary Materials Scholarly Journals Substantial News Sensational Publications Contemporary Materials Popular Magazines
  • 29. Kinesthetic Learners • Need the opportunity to be mobile • Want to feel, smell, and taste everythingeverything • May want to touch their neighbor as well • Like to take things apart to see how they work
  • 30. Teaching Kinesthetic Learners • Use a hands-on approach to learning • Provide opportunities to move • Use simulations when appropriate • Bring in music, art, and manipulatives• Bring in music, art, and manipulatives • Break up lecture so that it is in manageable chunks • Use discovery learning when appropriate • Use discussion groups or cooperative learning so that student have an opportunity to move about and to talk with their peers.
  • 31. TEACH TO THE BIG IDEAS IN ALL CONTENT AREAS • Important to Know and Do • Big Ideas Worth Understanding • Nice to Know
  • 32. How Do We Get to Big Ideas??
  • 33. Select standards from among those students need to know Design an assessment through which students will have an opportunity to demonstrate those things Select a topic from the curriculum Design instructional activities Design and give an assessment Standards-based PracticeTraditional Practice The Process of Instructional PlanningThe Process of Instructional Planning things Decide what learning opportunities students will need to learn those things and plan appropriate instruction to assure that each student has adequate opportunities to learn Use data from assessment to give feedback, reteach or move to next level Design and give an assessment Give grade or feedback Move onto new topic
  • 34. Select standards from among those students need to know Design an assessment through which students will have an opportunity to demonstrate those things Select a topic from the curriculum Design instructional activities Design and give an assessment Standards-based PracticeTraditional Practice The Process of Instructional PlanningThe Process of Instructional Planning things Decide what learning opportunities students will need to learn those things and plan appropriate instruction to assure that each student has adequate opportunities to learn Use data from assessment to give feedback, reteach or move to next level Give grade or feedback Move onto new topic
  • 35. THINKING MODELS • Blooms Taxonomy • Dimensions of• Dimensions of Learning • Three Story Intellect
  • 36. Scaffolding Student Activities • Attitudes and Perceptions • Acquiring and Integrating Knowledge • Extending and Refining KnowledgeKnowledge • Using Knowledge Meaningfully • Productive Habits of Mind Robert Marzano
  • 37. Bloom’s Taxonomy • Knowledge - the student remembers facts • Comprehension - the student understands relations and context • Application - the student can apply his knowledge to new areasareas • Analysis - the student can analyze and find parts • Synthesis - the student can create something unique of his own • Evaluation - the student can give value judgments based on facts
  • 38. Dimensions of Learning Dimension 1: Positive Attitudes and Perceptions About Learning Dimension 2: Thinking Involved in Acquiring and Integrating Knowledge Dimension 3: Thinking Involved in Extending and Refining KnowledgeKnowledge Dimension 4: Thinking Involved in Using Knowledge Meaningfully Dimension 5: Productive Habits of Mind Marzano, R. J. (1992) A Different Kind of Classroom: Teaching with Dimensions of Learning Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, USA
  • 39. Activities for Extending and Refining Knowledge Comparing Identifying and articulating similarities and differences between things Classifying Grouping things into definable categories on the basis of attributes Inducing Inferring unknown generalizations or principles from observation or analysis Deducing Inferring unstated consequences and conditions from given principles and generalizations Analyzing Errors Identifying and articulating errors in your own and others’ thinking Constructing Support Constructing a system of support or proof for an assertion Abstracting Identifying and articulating the underlying theme or general pattern of information Analyzing Perspectives Identifying and articulating personal perspectives about issues
  • 40. Levels of Thinking LEVEL I: Factual Information LEVEL II: Extend and Refine LEVEL IV: Application
  • 41. Levels of Questioning • STANDARD – Essential Question • Unit Questions• Unit Questions –Level I Questions: Factual Information –Level II Questions: Extending and Refining –Level III Questions: Application
  • 42. Essential Question: How does humankind progressEssential Question: How does humankind progress from one stage to another?from one stage to another? Unit Questions: Level I: Gathering InformationLevel I: Gathering Information • What are the characteristics of hunter-gatherer societies? • What events moved people closer to being a civilized community? • Who were the first people to Level II: Extending and RefiningLevel II: Extending and Refining KnowledgeKnowledge • How would you compare hunter-gather societies to move advanced civilizations? • How would you classify a human community as a• Who were the first people to establish what we consider to be a civilization? • Where were the major human communities located? • Why were the use of tools and fire important developments during this period? human community as a civilization? • How did climatic changes impact plant life and the domestication of animals? Level III: Using KnowledgeLevel III: Using Knowledge MeaningfullyMeaningfully • How might these experiences help us plan future communities in space?
  • 43. Introduction Robert J. Marzano’s The Art and Science of Teaching Effective teaching is both an art and a science. • Science: Teaching follows research-• Science: Teaching follows research- based practices to promote student achievement. • Art: Teaching is an act of interpretation and self expression on the part of the educator.
  • 44. Three Framework Characteristics 1. Effective instructional strategies 2. Effective classroom management strategiesstrategies 3. Effective classroom curriculum design
  • 45. Three Components of EffectiveThree Components of Effective Classroom PedagogyClassroom Pedagogy Effective Classroom Pedagogy Use of effective instructional strategies Use of effective management strategies Use of effective classroom curriculum design strategies
  • 46. Think-Pair-Share Warm-Up • Think: Create written definitions for each of the terms presented on your handout. • Pair: Partner with another participant and compare your definitions and reflections. • Share: Prepare key insights with your partner to share with the rest of the group.
  • 47. Help Students Make Connections • “Teachers should not assume that transfer will automatically occur after students acquire a sufficient base of information. Significant and efficient transfer occurs only if we teach to achieve it.” » David Sousa. How the Brain Learns (1995)
  • 48. Strategies for Connections • Association – Refer to previous lessons – Ask about personal experiences– Ask about personal experiences – Ask students to predict behaviors or events • Similarity • Critical attributes • Context and degree of original learning
  • 49. Teaching for Long-Term Memory • Types of Memory – Semantic – Episodic– Episodic – Procedural – Automatic – Emotional
  • 50. Teaching for Long-Term Memory • Put information into manageable “chunks” 7 +/- 2 • Use questioning strategies • Use peer teaching • Use graphic and linguistic organizers • Use mnemonics, stories, and metaphors • Use visuals • Use motion, such as role plays, drama, choral readings, debates • Provide practice • Engage positive emotions
  • 51. Using Higher-Level Thinking Processes • Help them create personal goals for learning. • Critical Thinking• Critical Thinking • Creative Thinking • Problem solving
  • 52. Bloom’s Taxonomy 1. Knowledge 2. Comprehension 3. Application3. Application 4. Synthesis 5. Analysis 6. Evaluation
  • 53. Tools that help students – Comparison – Classification – Induction– Induction – Deduction – Error analysis – Construction support – Abstracting or pattern building – Analyzing perspectives – Marzano 1992., R.J. A Different Kind of Classroom
  • 54. Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy Anderson, Krathwohl et al, 2000
  • 55. Original Terms New Terms • Evaluation • Synthesis • Analysis •Creating •Evaluating •Analyzing• Analysis • Application • Comprehension • Knowledge •Analyzing •Applying •Understanding •Remembering
  • 56. Change in Terms • The names of six major categories were changed from noun to verb forms. • As the taxonomy reflects different forms of thinking and thinking is an active process verbs were more accurate. • The subcategories of the six major categories were also replaced by verbs • Some subcategories were reorganised. • The knowledge category was renamed. Knowledge is a product of thinking and was inappropriate to describe a category of thinking and was replaced with the word remembering instead. • Comprehension became understanding and synthesis was renamed creating in order to better reflect the nature of the thinking described by each category.
  • 57. Change in Emphasis • More authentic tool for curriculum planning, instructional delivery and assessment. • Aimed at a broader audience.• Aimed at a broader audience. • Easily applied to all levels of schooling. • The revision emphasises explanation and description of subcategories.
  • 58. UNDERSTANDING BY DESIGN -Focusing on Instructional Priorities • TARGETING • ASSESSING • TEACHING• TEACHING
  • 59. UNDERSTANDING BY DESIGN -Focusing on Instructional Priorities • TARGETING • ASSESSING • TEACHING• TEACHING
  • 60. Level One Assessment Items • Requires students to recall facts [who, what, when, and where], terms, specific information concepts, trends, generalizations, and theories or to recognize or identify contained in maps, charts, tables, graphs, or drawings.tables, graphs, or drawings. Examples: Recall or recognize an event, map, or document Describe the features of a place or people Identify key figures in a particular context
  • 61. Level Two Assessment Items • Requires students to contrast or compare people, places, events, and concepts; give examples, classify or sort items into meaningful categories; describe, interpret or explain issues and problems, patterns, reasons, causes, effects, significance or impact, relationships, and points of view or processes.processes. Examples: Describe the causes/effects of particular events Identify patterns in events or behavior Categorize events or figures into meaningful groupings
  • 62. Level Three Assessment Items • Requires students to draw conclusions, cite evidence, apply concepts to new situations; use concepts to solve problems, analyze similarities and differences in issues and problems; propose and evaluate solutions; recognize and explain misconceptions; make predictions; make connections and explain main concepts.explain main concepts. Examples: Analyze how changes have affected people or places Apply concept in other contexts Form alternate conclusions or solutions
  • 63. Teaching for Understanding
  • 64. UNDERSTANDING BY DESIGN -Focusing on Instructional Priorities • TARGETING • ASSESSING • TEACHING• TEACHING
  • 65. Instruction Learning Experiences • Instruction –Concrete to the Abstract
  • 66. Three Story Intellect GatheringGathering KnowledgeKnowledge Level ILevel I DescribeDescribe RecallRecall TellTell ListList Extending andExtending and RefiningRefining Level IILevel II CompareCompare ContrastContrast InterpretInterpret Explain How/WhyExplain How/Why Using KnowledgeUsing Knowledge Level IIILevel III ImagineImagine Predict/SpeculatePredict/Speculate EvaluateEvaluate Constructing supportConstructing support HypothesizeHypothesize AbstractAbstract ListList IdentifyIdentify Time sequenceTime sequence Define vocabularyDefine vocabulary and conceptsand concepts RecognizeRecognize events andevents and episodesepisodes 1111 Explain How/WhyExplain How/Why ClassifyClassify Cause/AffectCause/Affect InferInfer DistinguishDistinguish Inductive reasoningInductive reasoning Analyzing perspectiveAnalyzing perspective AbstractAbstract AnalyzeAnalyze JudgeJudge Deductive reasoningDeductive reasoning Extended TransferExtended Transfer Decision makingDecision making Problem solveProblem solve Issue investigationIssue investigation
  • 67. Three Story Intellect GatheringGathering KnowledgeKnowledge Level ILevel I DescribeDescribe RecallRecall TellTell ListList Extending andExtending and RefiningRefining Level IILevel II CompareCompare ContrastContrast InterpretInterpret Explain How/WhyExplain How/Why UsingUsing KnowledgeKnowledge Level IIILevel III ImagineImagine Predict/SpeculatePredict/Speculate EvaluateEvaluate Constructing supportConstructing supportListList IdentifyIdentify Time sequenceTime sequence Define vocabularyDefine vocabulary and conceptsand concepts RecognizeRecognize events andevents and episodesepisodes Explain How/WhyExplain How/Why ClassifyClassify Cause/AffectCause/Affect InferInfer DistinguishDistinguish Inductive reasoningInductive reasoning Analyzing perspectiveAnalyzing perspective Constructing supportConstructing support HypothesizeHypothesize AbstractAbstract AnalyzeAnalyze JudgeJudge Deductive reasoningDeductive reasoning Extended TransferExtended Transfer Decision makingDecision making Problem solveProblem solve Issue investigationIssue investigation
  • 68. Three Story Intellect GatheringGathering KnowledgeKnowledge Level ILevel I DescribeDescribe RecallRecall TellTell ListList Extending andExtending and RefiningRefining Level IILevel II CompareCompare ContrastContrast InterpretInterpret Explain How/WhyExplain How/Why Using KnowledgeUsing Knowledge Level IIILevel III ImagineImagine Predict/SpeculatePredict/Speculate EvaluateEvaluate Constructing supportConstructing support HypothesizeHypothesizeListList IdentifyIdentify Time sequenceTime sequence Define vocabularyDefine vocabulary and conceptsand concepts RecognizeRecognize events andevents and episodesepisodes Explain How/WhyExplain How/Why ClassifyClassify Cause/AffectCause/Affect InferInfer DistinguishDistinguish Inductive reasoningInductive reasoning Analyzing perspectiveAnalyzing perspective AbstractAbstract AnalyzeAnalyze JudgeJudge Deductive reasoningDeductive reasoning Extended Transfer TaskExtended Transfer Task Decision makingDecision making Problem solvingProblem solving Issue investigationIssue investigation
  • 69. Scaffolding Instructional Strategies • Direct Instruction • Indirect Instruction – Constructivism– Constructivism – Hands-on • Experiential Learning – Real Life Situations • Independent Study – Projects
  • 70. Scaffolding Teaching Strategies • Essential Question: Why is the Bill of Rights so important in the lives of all Americans? – Gathering information (individual research) • Handout a list of guide questions concerning the Bill of Rights. • Have the students go on online to research the answers to the questions.questions. • Ask a summarizing questions at the end of their research: What rights are protected by the Bill of Rights? – Extending and Refining Knowledge (working in groups) • Have the students classify the rights you have researched in terms of personal rights and rights which apply to the total community. • Use a Venn Diagram to compare and contrast the rights – Application: Using Knowledge Meaningfully (presentation to the group) • Have the students write a brief paragraph: – Which one of the rights protected by the Bill of Rights do you think is the most important to you as a student in school? Provide details to support your answer
  • 71. Scaffolding Teaching Strategies Level I: Gathering Information • Essential Question: How do consumers acquire goods and services? Take the class on a tour of the school. Have them identify community workers in our school. As workers are identified (e.g., teacher, nurse, principal, janitor, cafeteria worker, grounds person) stop the workers and ask them questions about their jobs and the tools they use. Note the important details about what each worker does. workers and ask them questions about their jobs and the tools they use. Note the important details about what each worker does. Back in the classroom, generate a list of the workers the students met on their tour of the school. Write this information on the board in the form of a chart. Include a description of what the students learned about the jobs. Summarize the lesson by visiting the following website to review other community worker jobs. http://teacher.scholastic.com/commclub/ http://bensguide.gpo.gov/k-2/neighborhood/index.html Have the students describe what each worker is doing on the website. Add these workers to your Community Workers Chart on the board.
  • 72. Scaffolding Teaching Strategies Level II: Extendng and Refining • Essential Question: How do consumers acquire goods and services? Read to the class: If you give a Mouse a Cookie by Laurie Joffee Numeroff. Talk about the goods and services the mouse wanted. Use a chart on the board to categorize the goods and services talked about in the story. Continue the discussion by asking what goods and services the students wanted. Add these to the chart in the proper column. Be sure you havewanted. Add these to the chart in the proper column. Be sure you have them explain why they think it is a good or a service. Use the following website for additional information about the difference between a good and a service: http://teacher.scholastic.com/commclub/ http://www.econedlink.org/lessons/em197/flash/activity1.html http://mcwdn.org/ECONOMICS/GoodService.html Help the students summarize the lesson by selecting one of the goods and/or services and illustrating it and then presenting it to the class with a n explanation of why it is a good or service.
  • 73. Scaffolding Teaching Strategies Level III: Application • Essential Question: How do consumers acquire goods and services? Use the following website to see actual people working in a community: http://www.econedlink.org/lessons/EM195/dogpics/slideshow.htm This slideshow contains pictures and captions describing the daily activities at a kennel. Have the students work in pairs to generate a list of kennel goods and a list ofHave the students work in pairs to generate a list of kennel goods and a list of kennel services. Have them share their lists with the class. Have the students predict what would happen in the following situations: What would happen to the kennel if there were no dogs in the community? What might the kennel do if everyone in the community had a cat instead of a dog? What goods and services would the kennel then provide?
  • 74. DIMENSIONS OF LEARNING (DOL 3) Level II Thinking Skills • COMPARING • CLASSIFYING • SUPPORTED INDUCTION • ANALYZING ERRORS • CONSTRUCTING SUPPORTINDUCTION • SUPPORTED DEDUCTION SUPPORT • ABSTRACTING • ANALYZING PERSPECTIVES • QUESTIONING
  • 75. Collaborative learning • Good teacher to student communication • Student to student communication
  • 76. Bridging Gaps between Learners • Build self-efficacy • Eliminate bias – Linguistic– Linguistic – Stereotyping – Exclusion – Isolation – Selectivity
  • 77. Using Authentic Assessments • What is it that we want students to know and to be able to do as a result of learning? • Examinations and assignments become a way to help students understand theirway to help students understand their progress in learning, and they also help evaluate teaching. • Evaluation and assessment stress learning rather than performance
  • 78. McRel - Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning • Marzano and other researchers at McRel have identified 9 instructional strategies that are most likely tostrategies that are most likely to improve student achievement in all content areas and grades. • This is outlined in Marzano’s book, “Classroom Instruction that Works”
  • 79. Strategies 1. Identifying similarities and differences 2. Summarizing and note taking 3. Reinforcing effort and providing recognition 4. Homework and practice4. Homework and practice 5. Nonlinguistic representations 6. Cooperative learning 7. Setting objectives and providing feedback 8. Generating and testing hypotheses 9. Cues, questions, and advance organizers
  • 80. Instructional Strategies broken down • Three types - Cognitive, Academic and Motivational
  • 81. Cognitive Strategies • Identifying Similarities/Differences • Nonlinguistic Representations• Nonlinguistic Representations • Generating and Testing Hypotheses
  • 82. Academic Strategies • Summarizing and Note Taking • Homework and Practice • Cues, Questions and Advance Organizers (Activating Prior Knowledge)
  • 83. Motivational Strategies • Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition • Cooperative Learning • Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback
  • 84. Summary of Research from: http://manila.esu6.org/instructionalstrategies/stories/storyReader$12 • Guidance in identifying similarities and differences deepens students' understanding of and ability to apply knowledge. • Independently identifying similarities and differences deepens students' understanding of and the ability to apply knowledge.apply knowledge. • Representing similarities and differences in graphic or symbolic form deepens students' understanding of and ability to apply knowledge. • Identifying similarities and differences can be accomplished by: comparing, classifying, creating metaphors, and creating analogies.
  • 85. Implementation • Students benefit first by direct instruction - this has to be modeled • Point out similarities and differences. Present students with similarities and differences explicitly when this helps them reach aexplicitly when this helps them reach a learning goal. As a result of the teacher's instruction, students recognize similarities and differences in order to understand something specific. • After which, let students explore similarities and differences on their own
  • 86. Similarities & Differences COMPARING: Identifying similarities & differences between or among things or ideas. CLASSIFYING: Grouping things that are alike into categories based on their characteristics.categories based on their characteristics. CREATING ANALOGIES: Identifying relationships between pairs of concepts (Relationships between relationships) CREATING METAPHORS: Identifying a general pattern in a specific topic then finding another topic that is different, but has the same general pattern.
  • 87. • Compare • Classify • Create metaphors and analogies Finding similarities and differences can increase student achievement by 45% • Create metaphors and analogies
  • 88. • The brain seeks patterns, connections, and relationships between and among prior and new learning Finding Similarities and Differences prior and new learning • The ability to break a concept into its similar and dissimilar characteristics allows students to understand and often solve complex problems by analyzing them in a more simple way
  • 89. Identifying Similarities and Differences (Mean Effect Size 1.32) • Generalization – Use explicit guidance – Have students independently • Classroom Practice – Comparing – Classifying – Metaphors independently identify similarities and differences – Use graphic and symbolic forms – Use a variety of methods – Metaphors – Analogies • For all four practices use • Teacher-Directed • Student-Directed • Graphic Organizers
  • 90. Marzano’s Conclusions About FindingMarzano’s Conclusions About Finding Similarities and DifferencesSimilarities and Differences • The Marzano factor with the highest statistical effect size related to research-based factors impacting student achievement is the act of finding similarities and differences. • Comparison, contrast, and classification should be a regular part of all students’ learning experiences. • Using comparison/contrast and classification as a basis for designing teaching-learning-assessment tasks can greatly enhance students’ deep processing and understanding of the curriculum they are studying.
  • 91. Identifying Similarities and Differences 1. Explicitly guide students in identifying similarities and differences. 2. Ask students independently to sort items into categories based upon their similarities and differences. 3. Present and help students create graphic and symbolic comparisons. 4. Reinforce key cognitive skills: a. Comparing c. Metaphors b. Classifying d. Analogies
  • 92. Tools for Identifying Similarities and Differences • Venn Diagram • Comparison & Classification Matrices • Category Matrix • Metaphor Creation Through the Literal- Abstract-Literal Process • Analogy Template:• Category Matrix • Ball-Chain Graphic Organizer & Double Bubble Graphic Organizer • Analogy Template: A:B::C:D • Analogy Graphic Organizer • Sentence Stems: ____ and ____ are similar because _____. They are different because _______.
  • 93. The Venn DiagramThe Venn Diagram Similarities/Similarities/Socialism/Socialism/ CapitalismCapitalismSimilarities/Similarities/ AreasAreas OfOf CongruenceCongruence Socialism/Socialism/ UniqueUnique CharacteristicsCharacteristics CapitalismCapitalism UniqueUnique CharacteristicsCharacteristics
  • 94. Item 1 Item 2 Item 3 (Comparison Matrix) Characteristic 1 Similarities and Differences Characteristic 2 Similarities and Differences Characteristic 3 Similarities and Differences Characteristic 4 Similarities and Differences
  • 95. The Comparison MatrixThe Comparison Matrix Items to Be Compared Characteristics External body features LionLion ElephantElephant DolphinDolphin features Habitat Sources of Energy
  • 96. BallBall--Chain Graphic OrganizerChain Graphic Organizer Literary Texts Prose Poetry Dramatic LiteratureFiction Non- Ballad LiteratureFiction Fiction Novel Novella Short Story Essay Editorial Tragedy Drama Comedy Lyric Dramatic Monologue Ode Sonnet Haiku
  • 97. Double Bubble GraphicDouble Bubble Graphic OrganizerOrganizer Forms of Government Coexists with representative governments Often perceived as police states Monarchy Dictatorship Dominated by a single person Numerous historical examples Usually comes into power through heritage Usually comes into power through force
  • 98. A and B are similar because they both ________________ ________________ ________________ A and B are different becauseA and B are different because A is __________, but B is ___________. A is __________, but B is ___________. A is __________, but B is ___________.
  • 99. Fun and Enjoyment are similar because they both ________________. ________________. ________________. Fun and Enjoyment are different becauseFun and Enjoyment are different because Fun is ___, but Enjoyment is ___________. Fun is____, but Enjoyment is ___________. Fun is ____, but Enjoyment is ___________.
  • 100. A win and a victory are similar because they both ________________. ________________. ________________. A win and a victory are different because Win is ___, but Victory is __________. Win is ___,but Victory is ________. Win is ___,but Victory is ________.
  • 101. Fractions and Decimals are similar because they both ________________. ________________. ________________.________________. Fractions and Decimals are different because Fractions __, but Decimals __. Fractions __, but Decimals __. Fractions __, but Decimals __.
  • 102. A monarchy and a dictatorship are similar because they both ________________. ________________. ________________. A monarchy and a dictatorship are differentA monarchy and a dictatorship are different because a monarchy___, but a dictatorship____. a monarchy___, but a dictatorship____. a monarchy___, but a dictatorship____.
  • 103. Comparing Terms: Format 1: Sentence Stems •This format provides sentences to be completed by students. •The first set of sentences asks students to fill in similarities between the two terms, and the second set asks forbetween the two terms, and the second set asks for differences. •Sentence stems provide very structured guidance for students, thus helping them to avoid common errors in their thinking. Sometimes students jump into a comparison task without first identifying the characteristics on which they will base their comparison.
  • 104. Sentence Stems Examples • ______ and ______ are similar because they both….. • _______________________ • _______________________ • _______________________• _______________________ •______ and ____ are different because •______ is _____, but _______ is ________ •______ is _____, but _______ is ________ •______ is _____, but _______ is ________
  • 105. Sentence Stems Examples • Monarchy and dictatorship are similar because they both….. • Are forms of government. • Are governments with major power given to one person. • Have examples from history in which the powerful person was a tyrant.
  • 106. Sentence Stems Examples continued • Monarchy and dictatorship are different because … • In a monarchy, the ruler is often in power because of heritage, but in a dictatorship, the ruler often comes to power through force or coercion.coercion. • In monarchies today, the rulers are often perceived to be loved by the people, but in dictatorships, the rulers are often feared and hated by the people. »A monarchy can coexist with a representative government, but a dictatorship often is a police state.
  • 107. Comparing Terms: Format 2: Venn Diagram •Forms of •Can coexist with representative •Often perceived Monarchy Dictatorship •Forms of government •Single person rule •Many are tyrants representative government •Loved by people •Inherited power as police state •Rulers often hated and feared •Comes to power through coercion or force DIFFERENCES DIFFERENCES SIMILARITIES
  • 108. Comparing Terms: Format 3: Double Bubble
  • 109. Monarchy Dictatorship FORMS OF GOVERNMENT Co-exist with represent. government Ruler is hated or feared
  • 110. Comparing Terms: Format 4: Matrix Item 1 Item 2 Item 3 Characteristic 1 Similarities &1 & Differences Characteristic 2 Similarities & Differences Characteristic 3 Similarities & Differences
  • 111. Comparing Terms: Format 4: Matrix •In the column headings, students place the terms they are going to compare. •In the rows, the students identify the general characteristics on which they will base their comparison. •In the cells, they briefly describe each term as it relates to each characteristic.characteristic. •Finally, students look at their information and draw conclusions about the similarities and differences. •The matrix lends itself to comparing more than two terms at a time. •Its power lies in the fact that it provides an organizer for the information about a term. Once complete it guides students to think about, and discuss, the similarities and differences in some detail.
  • 112. Comparing Terms: Format 4: Matrix Monarchy Dictatorship Democracy Similarities & Differences How the leader comes to power Usually Inherits power; Serves for life Usually takes power through force; Often is leader for life Leaders are elected; Often does not have total power Monarchy and Dictatorship are more alike & democracy is different. Monarchies and dictatorships take or give power to an individualpower to an individual while in demo. the people decide by election who will govern. The reaction of the people Usually loved except by persecuted groups Often the dictator is hated or feared People often split but know they can elect soon The role of the people People expect to obey People expect to obey Power through vote
  • 113. Solving Analogy Problems • A complete analogy contains two terms in the first set (A and B) that have the same relationship as the two terms in the second set (C and D). A common format for an analogy statement is A is to B as C is to D. • If only one term is missing, the field of• If only one term is missing, the field of possible accurate answers is narrowed considerably: – Martin Luther King, Jr. is to civil rights as _______ is to women’s rights
  • 114. Solving Analogy Problems • When two terms are missing, an analogy can be completed with a wider variety of answers. Many different perspectives can be applied to compete the analogy: • Harry Truman is to World War II as _____ is to ______ • Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee is to Native Americans as _____ is to _______
  • 115. Solving Analogy Problems • As students solve the analogy problems, make sure they include a description of the relationship that both sets of terms have in common. • Use a graphic organizer to clearly highlight the importance of defining howhighlight the importance of defining how the items in each set are related. Term A Term BAS Term C Term D“Relating Factor”
  • 116. Solving Analogy Problems Synagogue Judaism Mosque AS A place of IslamMosque A place of worship Islam •Analogy problems with two missing terms provide opportunities for students to think beyond the obvious relationships, thereby helping them to gain new insights into the analogy terms.
  • 117. Creating Metaphors • Metaphors expose how objects or ideas that seem quite different might actually be, at a more general level, very similar. • The goal of creating metaphors is to guide students into seeing general relationships between new termsinto seeing general relationships between new terms they are learning and another term which they are more familiar with although the terms seem very different.
  • 118. Creating Metaphors • To engage students in metaphorical thinking try the following steps: • Step 1: List the specific characteristics of a targeted term. • Step 2: Rewrite those characteristics in more general language. • Step 3: Identify another specific• Step 3: Identify another specific term and explain how it also has the general characteristics identified during Step 2.
  • 119. Creating Metaphors • At first, students might need significant guidance and modeling, especially as they try to decide just how general the language in Step 2 should be • Teachers who use metaphors report• Teachers who use metaphors report that students who struggle with assignments requiring extensive writing sometimes demonstrate deep levels of insight when the focus is on this type of thinking.
  • 120. A Sample MetaphorA Sample Metaphor (Part I)(Part I) 1.1. Literal:Literal: The Cell 2.2. General/Abstract Pattern:General/Abstract Pattern: A living system composed ofliving system composed of structures, processes, and roles that sustain life. 3.3. Literal Comparison:Literal Comparison: The Starship Enterprise
  • 121. A Sample MetaphorA Sample Metaphor (Part II) 1.1. Literal Element 1:Literal Element 1: The Cell’s Nucleus 2.2. General/Abstract Pattern:General/Abstract Pattern: The part that runs the whole system 3.3. Comparison Element 1:Comparison Element 1: The bridge 4.4. Literal Element 2:Literal Element 2: Selectively permeable membrane 5.5. General/Abstract Pattern:General/Abstract Pattern: A part that keeps out bad things and lets in good 6.6. Comparison Element 2:Comparison Element 2: The transporter room
  • 122. Creating a Metaphor forCreating a Metaphor for TeachingTeaching • Think of a metaphor or analogy for being a teacher: Being a teacher is like being a(n)________________ . • Use Marzano’s “Literal Element/ General/Abstract Pattern” model to elaborate on your metaphor. • Share your metaphor and elaboration with a partner.
  • 123. Application Activity 2Application Activity 2 1. Use this metaphor template to create an original metaphor for one of the learningoriginal metaphor for one of the learning theories presented in your handout.theories presented in your handout. 2. Share your metaphor with a partner.2. Share your metaphor with a partner. 3. How might the ideas and strategies reflected in this learning theory be used to improve student achievement?
  • 124. BLOOM’S REVISED TAXONOMY CreatingCreating Generating new ideas, products, or ways of viewing things Designing, constructing, planning, producing, inventing. EvaluatingEvaluating Justifying a decision or course of action Checking, hypothesising, critiquing, experimenting, judging AnalysingAnalysing Breaking information into parts to explore understandings and relationshipsBreaking information into parts to explore understandings and relationships Comparing, organising, deconstructing, interrogating, finding ApplyingApplying Using information in another familiar situation Implementing, carrying out, using, executing UnderstandingUnderstanding Explaining ideas or concepts Interpreting, summarising, paraphrasing, classifying, explaining RememberingRemembering Recalling information Recognising, listing, describing, retrieving, naming, finding
  • 125. Comparing The process of identifying and articulating similarities and differences among items. 1. Select the items you want to compare. 2. Select the characteristics of the items on2. Select the characteristics of the items on which you want to base your comparison. 3. Explain how the items are similar and different with respect to the characteristics you selected.
  • 126. Comparing The process of describing how things are the same and different 1. What do I want to compare? 2. What is it about them that I want to compare?compare? 3. How are they the same? And how are they different
  • 127. Venn Diagram Object One Object Two
  • 128. Use a Venn to compare… • Numbers • Animals • Places • People •Illustrations or illustrators •Holidays •Celebrations• People • Land forms • Weather • Books • TV programs •Celebrations •Religions •Farms •Food •Plants etc.
  • 129. Characteristics Item 1 Item 2 Item 3 Similarities/difference s 1 2 3 4
  • 130. T-Bar Analysis Object One Object Two
  • 131. Language of Comparison • Explicit teaching of the vocabulary that students can use when sharing their thinking and learning: • In comparison • Compared to • Similarly• Similarly • Whereas • Alternatively • But • Although • On the other hand • However • In contrast
  • 132. Key Points: Comparing 1. Because the process of comparing can be overused, it is important to ask if it is the best process to use to help students extend and refine the identified content knowledge. 2. Students need extensive modeling, practice and2. Students need extensive modeling, practice and feedback in order to become skilled at identifying meaningful and interesting characteristics to use in comparison tasks. 3. Students should understand that the purpose of doing a comparison task is to extend and refine knowledge. A question such as “What did you discover?” helps to reinforce this understanding.
  • 133. Key Points: 1. Comparing is the reasoning process that is the most commonly used in K-12 classrooms. Be careful that it is not over-used. Consider the question, “Why are the students doing this comparison? 2. One key to a rigorous comparison is to identify characteristics that are meaningful and interesting. Brainstorm for characteristics as a class. Use expanded comparison – Students complete a matrix and then add additional characteristics of their own that are meaningful. •
  • 134. Key Points: 3. Students need to understand that the purpose of doing a comparison task is to extend and refine knowledge. “What insights did you gain?” “What new connections did you make with other content?” or “What did you discover or rediscover as a result of doing the comparison?”a result of doing the comparison?” 4. Provide the students with graphic organizers or representations to help them understand and use the process of comparing. A Venn diagram or a matrix works very easily. 5. Use teacher-structured and student-structured tasks. •
  • 135. 1. Football Baseball Chess Golf Chances of players suffering from serious injury Average annual compensationcompensation Percentage of women playing competitively Average number of years players can compete
  • 136. 2. Football Baseball Chess Golf Size of crowds attending events Chances of players appearing on a Wheat-Bix boxbox Numbers of people watching or listening via the media Chances of high school players winning a scholarship
  • 137. BLOOM’S REVISED TAXONOMY CreatingCreating Generating new ideas, products, or ways of viewing things Designing, constructing, planning, producing, inventing. EvaluatingEvaluating Justifying a decision or course of action Checking, hypothesising, critiquing, experimenting, judging AnalysingAnalysing Breaking information into parts to explore understandings and relationships Comparing, organising, deconstructing, interrogating, findingComparing, organising, deconstructing, interrogating, finding ApplyingApplying Using information in another familiar situation Implementing, carrying out, using, executing UnderstandingUnderstanding Explaining ideas or concepts Interpreting, summarising, paraphrasing, classifying, explaining RememberingRemembering Recalling information Recognising, listing, describing, retrieving, naming, finding
  • 138. Classifying : The process of grouping things into definable categories on the basis of their attributes 1. Identify the items you want to classify. 2. Select what seems to be an important item, describe its key attributes and identify other items that have the same attributes. 3. Create the category by specifying the attribute(s) that the items must have for membership in the category. 4. Select another item, describe its key attributes and identify4. Select another item, describe its key attributes and identify other items that have the same attributes. 5. Create this second category by specifying the attribute(s) that the items must have for membership in the category. 6. Repeat the previous two steps until all items are classified and the specific attributes have been identified for membership in each category. 7. If necessary, combine categories or split them into smaller categories and specify the attribute(s) that determine membership in the category.
  • 139. Classifying The process of grouping things that are alike into categories 1. What do I want to classify? 2. What things are alike and could be put into a group? 3. How are these things alike?3. How are these things alike? 4. What other groups can I make and how are the things alike in each group? 5. Does everything now fit into a group? 6. Would it be better to split up any of the groups or put any groups together?
  • 140. Graphic Organizers for Classifying Categories
  • 141. Exercise: Life and Death Would you classify the following as living, dead or ? Explain Living Dead ? 1. Mummies 2. Fossils 3. Lightning 4. Bacteria4. Bacteria 5. Seaweed 6. The Loch Ness Monster 7. Thoughts 8. Coral Reefs 9. Petrified wood 10. Ghosts 11. Active Volcanoes 12. The sun 13. Fingernails 14. Pearls
  • 142. Geography Terms Basin Bay Canal Canyon Cape Channel Continent Delta Harbor Highland Hill Isthmus Lowland Marsh Mesa Mountain Plateau Port Prairie Rain forest Reservoir Source (of a river) Strait StreamDelta Divide Fall line Fjord Foothill Glacier Gulf Mountain Range Mouth (of a river) Peak Peninsula Plain Stream Swamp Tributary Tundra Valley Volcano
  • 143. Key Points: Classifying 1. Categories should be related to one another or parallel. 2. It is important to focus on attributes that are important and meaningful to the content. 3. Students must understand the defining characteristics of the categories well enough to justify placement ofof the categories well enough to justify placement of the items - which gets more difficult with complex content. 4. Having students classify and then reclassify is a key to helping them notice unique distinctions and connections that they might not have noticed had they classified the items only once.
  • 144. Key Points: Classifying In the second step of the process of classifying, students group items based on a specific attribute. When they get to step 4, they create another category and again specify the attribute. In order to focus the classification process, it is important that this second attribute, as well as eachit is important that this second attribute, as well as each subsequent attribute, be related to the first. Having students classify and then reclassify is often a key to helping them notice unique distinctions among items that they could miss if they classify items only once.
  • 145. Problem Solving • Overcoming limits or barriers that are in the way of reaching goals
  • 146. Questions the Process Helps Explore • What am I trying to accomplish? • What are the limits or barriers that are in the way? • What are some solutions for overcoming the limits or• What are some solutions for overcoming the limits or barriers? • Which solution will I try? • How well did it work? • Should I try another solution?
  • 147. Steps in the Process 1. Identify the goal you are trying to accomplish. 2. Identify the constraints or limiting conditions. 3. Determine exactly how these constraints or limiting conditions are preventing you from reaching your goal. 4. Identify different ways of overcoming the constraints or meeting the limiting conditions. 5. Select and try out the alternative that appears to be the best. 6. Evaluate the effectiveness of the alternative you have tried. 7. Identify different ways of overcoming the constraints or meeting
  • 148. O V E RR V I E W