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Speed and Safety: Composite Materials in Motorsport - Dallara Automobili
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Speed and Safety: Composite Materials in Motorsport - Dallara Automobili

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This presentation will give an insight of what safety criteria govern the design and the manufacturing of modern racing cars, such as Formula 1 and Indy cars, and will show how good engineering can be …

This presentation will give an insight of what safety criteria govern the design and the manufacturing of modern racing cars, such as Formula 1 and Indy cars, and will show how good engineering can be used to reduce the risk of fatalities for racing drivers. It will also explain the challenges which Dallara and Altair will face in the near future to develop new tools for the dynamic structural analysis of carbon composites structures.

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  • 1. SPEED AND SAFETY: COMPOSITE MATERIALS IN MOTORSPORT Altair Americas HTC – Detroit, May 16th 2012 Luca Pignacca Chief Designer and EU Racing Business Leader09/05/2012 1
  • 2. “We wish to design and manufacture the fastest and the safest racing cars in the world”09/05/2012 2
  • 3. Giampaolo, Aside from my true affection for you as a person, I love you for the passion you put into your work of leading a truly remarkable company, which in my opinion, builds the best and most safe race cars in the world. We all have carried heavy hearts this week, as we lost a great man to a tragic accident. A great man, a great husband and father, a true Champion in every sense. In my estimation, he was in the best and safest car he could have been in to have a chance of surviving an incident of that magnitude, as evidenced by the fact that others were able to escape with little injury given similar dynamics. The fact of the matter is that God had determined that it was Dans time to join Him in heaven, and it was simply out of our human hands. I know Dan appreciated all of the love, passion and pride you put into doing what you do, and was proud to be part of the development of the new car with you. We will all miss him and we will all come together to support his family in their time of need, as we carry on in his memory. Regards, Tony George09/05/2012 3
  • 4. DALLARA RACE CARS IndyCar GP2 Renault World Indylight Series 3.5 GP3 F3 Formulino Grand-Am09/05/2012 4
  • 5. AUTOMOTIVE CONSULTANCIES KTM X-Bow Bugatti Veyron 16.4 Alfa 8C Maserati MC1209/05/2012 5
  • 6. COMPANY PRESENTATION In a world of increasing competition and knowledge distribution, our company strategy is focused on three areas of specialist knowledge: 1.Design and manufacturing 2.Aerodynamics 3.Vehicle Dynamics09/05/2012 6
  • 7. DESIGN OFFICE09/05/2012 7
  • 8. STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS09/05/2012 8
  • 9. AERODYNAMICS: 2 WIND TUNNELS and CFD09/05/2012 9
  • 10. VEHICLE DYNAMIC : MULTIBODY ANALYSIS09/05/2012 10
  • 11. INDOOR TESTING - SEVEN POSTER RIG09/05/2012 11
  • 12. OUTDOOR TESTING - TRACK SUPPORT09/05/2012 12
  • 13. R&D: DRIVING SIMULATOR09/05/2012 13
  • 14. TECHNOLOGY: THE CONNECTION BETWEEN SPEED AND SAFETY Low speed - High risk High speed - Low risk "It is all about probabilities. You can never make it safe. F1 is not safe but you can do a lot of work to reduce the probability of somebody getting hurt.” Max Mosley Former FIA President09/05/2012 14
  • 15. HISTORY - CHASSIS EVOLUTION Continue evolution… 80s - composite 70s - aluminium monocoque monocoque with bonded and riveted panels09/05/2012 60s - Steel tubes 15
  • 16. INDYCAR 2012 SAFETY REQUIREMENTS AND HOMOLOGATION TESTS09/05/2012 16
  • 17. NOSE PUSH OFF TEST After 30 seconds of application:  no failure of the structure  no failure of any attachment between the structure and the survival cell. 4.000 kg – 8.810 lbs @ midpoint between nose tip and chassis front bulkhead09/05/2012 17
  • 18. FRONTAL CRASH TEST #1 no damage to the monocoque no failure of any attachment of safety belts and fire ext. Peak deceleration over the first 150 mm < 10 g Average trolley deceleration < 80 g Peak deceleration > 80 g for max 10 ms Total trolley weight = 900 kg – 1982 lbs Impact speed = 12 m/s Impact energy = 65 kJ Dummy weight = 75 kg Fuel tank = full of water (18,5 US Gal – 154 lbs)09/05/2012 18
  • 19. FRONTAL CRASH TEST #2 (on the same crash cone of #1) no damage to the monocoque no failure of any attachment of safety belts and fire ext. Peak deceleration over the first 150 mm < 10 g Average trolley deceleration < 40 g Peak deceleration > 80 g for max 10 ms Total trolley weight = 900 kg – 1982 lbs Impact speed = 8,5 m/s Impact energy = 33 kJ Dummy weight = 75 kg Fuel tank = full of water (18,5 US Gal – 154 lbs)09/05/2012 19
  • 20. SAFETY STRUCTURES – NOSE BOX Crash 1 Crash 209/05/2012 20
  • 21. SAFETY STRUCTURES – NOSE BOX Crash nose box 2 Crash nose box 109/05/2012 21
  • 22. REAR IMPACT STRUCTURE PUSH OFF TEST After 30 seconds of application:  no failure of the structure  no failure of any attachment between the structure and the survival cell. 4.000 kg – 8.810 lbs @ mid point of rear impact structure09/05/2012 22
  • 23. REAR CRASH TEST  no damage to the structures behind the rear wheel axis  Average trolley deceleration < 40 g  Peak deceleration > 80 g for max 10 ms Total trolley weight = 900 kg – 1.982 lbs Impact speed = 11,85 m/s Impact energy = 63 kJ09/05/2012 23
  • 24. SAFETY STRUCTURES – REAR IMPACT STUCTURE Crash RIS09/05/2012 24
  • 25. SAFETY STRUCTURES – REAR IMPACT STUCTURE Video Billy Boat09/05/2012 25
  • 26. MAIN ROLL HOOP TEST 11.980 kg – 26.400 lbs Through the main roll hoop structure  No structural failure in a plane 100 mm – 4” below top of hoop  max deformation = 2” along the loading axis09/05/2012 26
  • 27. SAFETY STRUCTURES – MAIN ROLL HOOP Video Franchitti09/05/2012 27
  • 28. SIDE STATIC TEST #1  No structural failure  max deflection = 15 mm 3.000 kg – 6.610 lbs Where “tethered” front wheel would impact09/05/2012 28
  • 29. SIDE STATIC TEST #2  No structural failure  max deflection = 15 mm 3.000 kg – 6.610 lbs09/05/2012 29
  • 30. COCKPIT RIM TEST  No structural failure  max deflection = 20 mm 1.500 kg – 3.300 lbs @ 250 mm from rear edge of cockpit opening09/05/2012 30
  • 31. FUEL TANK SIDE TEST  No structural failure 1.500 kg – 3.300 lbsThrough the center of the fuel tank09/05/2012 31
  • 32. FUEL TANK BOTTOM TEST Through the center of the fuel tank 1.250 kg  No structural failure09/05/2012 32
  • 33. SECONDARY ROLL HOOP TEST 7.500 kg – 16.520 lbs On top of the dash bulkhead (not requested by Indycar , specified by Dallara) CALCULATION ONLY  No structural failure  max deformation = 2” along the loading axis09/05/2012 33
  • 34. SAFETY STRUCTURES – SECONDARY ROLL HOOP Front Roll Hoop09/05/2012 34
  • 35. SIDE CRASH LOADS TEST  No structural failure 1.500 kg x 4 – 3.300 lbs x 4 6.000 kg tot – 13.215 lbs tot on the side of the cockpit area (not requested by Indycar , specified by Dallara) CALCULATION ONLY09/05/2012 35
  • 36. SAFETY STRUCTURES – SIDE CRASH PANEL Video Hildebrand09/05/2012 36
  • 37. SIDE ZYLON PANELS Red area : 12 plies of Zylon (approx 5 mm thick) Green area : 7 plies of Zylon (approx 3 mm thick bonded on the monocoque sides after all the static tests09/05/2012 37
  • 38. DALLARA INDYCAR 2012 SAFETY CELL (MONOCOQUE) Complete monocoque weight = 81 kg – 178 lbs  Carbon composite sandwich structure with aluminium honey-comb core with side Zylon panels  Fabricated steel rool-hoop  2 x CNC machined aluminium bulkheads (dash and pedals)  Carbon composite seat back bulkhead09/05/2012 38
  • 39. A LONG CFRP CALCULATION HISTORY 2011 Crash of racing cars 2008 Crash box with FE approach 2005 Crash test of full scale vehicle with carbon fiber 2004 chassis Specific tools 2000 Crash box 1998 First analyses on carbon 1985 chassis09/05/2012 First carbon chassis 39
  • 40. COMPOSITE MATERIALS : HIGH PERFORMANCE Absorbed energy for different materials 90 Carbon woven Carbon UD 80 70 Specific energy absorption [J/g] 60 50 40 Stainless steel 30 20 10 Aluminium alloy High strenght steel 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 Elastic modulus [GPa] The designer can define shapes and materials which are new every time … .. by using his creativity and a lot of material types (UD, clothes) fibers (T700, T1000…) and “format” (GG200, GG630…)09/05/2012 40
  • 41. COMPOSITE MATERIALS : HIGH PERFORMANCE FLWB in CFRP: Crash Cone in CFRP: Displacement in cornering loadcase: 0.168 mm Energy absorption: 110000 J Weight: 1.31 kg Weight: 4.6 kg FLWB in Steel: Crash Cone in Aluminium: Displacement in cornering loadcase: 0.165mm Energy absorption: 110000 J Weight: 2.29 kg Weight: 7.8kg09/05/2012 41
  • 42. COMPOSITE MATERIALS : HIGH TECH • Big experience and knowledge are required • A lot of data necessary to do the analysis • Physical phenomena very complex KEY SYNERGIES WITH : • The main raw material market suppliers, keeping us constantly informed about CFRP new developments and solutions • The main software developers to test and improve new calculation and simulation tools • The most reliable CFRP components suppliers including series manufacturing, allowing us to adapt the component design to the proper manufacturing technology.09/05/2012 42
  • 43. CASE STUDY: IR12 CHASSIS ANALYSIS Phase 1 cleanup&mesh Phase 2 Phase 4 materials&properties post-processing Hypermesh Phase 3 post-processing Laminate Tools HyperLaminate and Laminate Tools09/05/2012 Hyperview 43
  • 44. CASE STUDY:MODEL BUILD UP09/05/2012 44
  • 45. CASE STUDY: BOUNDARY CONDITIONS Load applied through 1D elements Fixed at the engine mountings09/05/2012 45
  • 46. CASE STUDY: PLY-BY-PLY ANALYSIS Lay-up summary Ply-by-ply stress tensors Tsai-Wu failure index Tsai-Wu reserve factor09/05/2012 46
  • 47. CASE STUDY: DRAPING AND MANUFACTURING CONTROL09/05/2012 47
  • 48. PROVEN METHOD • Fibre and resin definition (strength, stiffness, resin content) • Experimental data from traction and compression tests on different directions • Creation of the FE model • Definition of the composite material card • Loadcases definition and analysis performing • Analysis results validation by testing of complete or partial samples09/05/2012 48
  • 49. WHAT HAPPENS IN A DYNAMIC SCENARIO? Dynamic Phenomena on CFRP • Failure criteria • Damages • Failure propagation • Inertial phenomena • Instability • Delamination • Energy absorption • Strain rate effect09/05/2012 49
  • 50. DYNAMIC SCENARIO: FIRST APPROACH Dallara routine : • Good correlation • Simple geometry (i.e.: F1 crash box) • No buckling • No bending09/05/2012 50
  • 51. DYNAMIC SCENARIO: SECOND APPROACH Material CARD • 74 parameters • Different failure theories • Combination of different criteria • Importance of the software house support • Importance of being involved in the development • Reliability of the software and of the testing laboratories • Importance of the reasearch&development activities09/05/2012 51
  • 52. DALLARA AND ALTAIR CRASH SIMULATION OF COMPOSITE STRUCTURES• Altair and Dallara are working together to develop new tools for composite structures crash simulation• RADIOSS beta versions in use at Dallara• Main focus = correlation between experimental data and simulation : broad Data Base for both race cars and “super road cars”• Design – simulate – make – test – correlate/validate : very fast “in house” process Crash cone09/05/2012 52
  • 53. DALLARA AND ALTAIR - CASE STUDY: CRASH BOX STRUCTURE09/05/2012 53
  • 54. DEVELOPMENT OF THE APPLICATIONS Crash IndyCar09/05/2012 54
  • 55. DEVELOPMENT OF THE APPLICATIONS Top view Top view09/05/2012 55
  • 56. THE BEST SATISFACTION “Ive had a long and good relationship with Dallara. I won the worlds largest motor race, the Indianapolis 500 in one of their chassis. But performance is not the only thing Dallara think about. They are also extremely safetyconscious. I drove one of their chassis when I had the biggest accident in my career at Texas Motor Speedway, when my car was launched into the barriers at 220 miles per hour while battling for the podium in the latest stages of the race. The g-force of the impact was measured an incredible 214 gs, as the car virtually exploded from the impact. It was highest the highest g-force to be recorded in an impact, ever. But the safety cell was intact. The sheer energy from the impact left me severely injured and hospitalized for 3 months. Its Kenny Brack not in the nature of motorsports to be "bulletproof", but I am convinced that it was thanks to Dallaras innovation and safety thinking that I lived to race another day”. KENNY BRACK Former Indianapolis 500 Champion09/05/2012 56

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