Elevators presentation (altacit template)
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Elevators presentation (altacit template)






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Elevators presentation (altacit template) Elevators presentation (altacit template) Presentation Transcript

  • A Brief Exposé on Elevators
    • An oft neglected requirement of our modern society, the elevator gives structure for our modern urban pursuits and represents a technological leap forward for vertical transportation.
  • History of the elevator
    • Early BC origins of elevator systems
    • Hydraulic elevators were popular in the mid-1800s and are still the norm for low-rise buildings; problematically, they require hydraulic oil and are inefficient
    • “ Standing rope control” for elevators invented in 1850
    • Credit goes to Elisha Otis for having invented the first safety passenger (brake) elevator in 1852
      • This elevator featured a lock-spring which would engage should the elevator descend too quickly ie if the cable were to break
  • (Cont)
    • 1857: Otis showcases the first passenger elevator (for a department store)
    • 1874: JW Meaker patents safety method for elevator doors
    • 1880: World’s first electric elevator
    • 1889: Direct-connected geared electric elevator
    • 1903: Gearless traction elevator
    • 1940’s: push-button elevators (not requiring human dispatchers)
    • 1950’s: pre-programmed elevators responding to peak hours
    • 1960’s: introduction of microcomputers to create a more efficient elevator
    • 1996: Machine room-less elevators by Kone save space and energy (1/3 the energy use of hydraulic elevators)
  • Patent information: total US patents granted
    • Elevator – 24,800 hits
    • A refined inspection of the patents reveals that 2796 (approx.) have been filed in the US which are pertinent to elevator technology
      • Includes inventive steps to elevator systems, safety features, physical design, electronic monitoring, control systems and ancillary features
      • 374 patents for induction motors
      • 13 patents for machine room-less
  • Major patent-holders
    • 1139
    • 42 (with Westinghouse, 289)
    • Inventio – 350
    • 31
    • 164
    • 72
    • 51
    • 2 (American office)
  • Examples of Patents and *Published Applications Serial Number Invention Title Serial Number Invention Title 1 (2010) Elevator 6 (1980) Floor selector system for elevator 2 (2005) Elevator System *7 Method for determining replacement state of wear of elevator means 3 (2003) Elevator belt assembly with noise reducing groove arrangement *8 Elevator system (speed) 4 (2000) Interactive elevator communication system *9 Elevator guide-rail system 5 (2002) Method for preventing an inadmissibly high speed of the load *10 Security-based elevator control
  • Patents observed in situ Earthquake-setting control system Machine room-less elevator Elevator system Gap-sealing technology Elevator group control system Safety equipment for preventing an elevator car collision with an object Method for preventing unnatural high-speed Interactive elevator communication system
  • Notable patent infringement cases
    • Schindler v Otis (2010) – for an elevator feature capable of recognizing a user upon walking into a monitored area and sending an elevator to bring the user to the relevant floor, no infringement was found.
    • Kone v Zheijiang (China) – elevator driving device attached to the wall instead of the ceiling was found to infringe under the “doctrine of equivalents”.
  • (cont)
    • Inventio AG v ThyssenKrupp – defendant prevails in this suit alleging infringement for temporary overlay patent providing controls with dispatch functionality; plaintiff’s patents revoked.
    • Advanced Hydraulics v Otis – “hydraulic elevator” patent of 1951 assigned to plaintiff and was likely infringed; however, estoppel due to delay and laches prohibited the claim
    • Kone v ThyssenKrupp (2009) – pending suit
  • Future of the industry
    • Looking at environmentally-friendly technology and efficient use of shaft space
    • Passenger comfort and smarter technologies to recognize passengers for security purposes, with emphasized research into computerized innovations
    • Economic downturn has been reducing sales and stymied high-rise development
      • Replacements for outdated and irreparable elevator systems less in demand than previously predicted
    • Competitiveness of the field set to increase following the immense fines (nearly $1 billion USD) levied against the largest elevator companies by the EU Competition Commission for price fixing and illicit collusion
  • Bizarre and logical tech improvements
    • “ Vacuum” elevators of science fiction, using air pressure to transport tenants and workers
    • “ Smell sensors” to determine whether or not the tenant is actually whom he presents himself to be
    • Magnetic suspension system – Mitsubishi – in trial stage
    • More efficient hydraulic systems for cities with blackouts and electrical precariousness
  • FIN