Erythrocytes, Leukocytes, and Thrombocytes Platelets (thrombocytes):purple RBC (erythrocytes): red WBC (leukocytes) Monocytes: orange Lymphocytes: green
Composition of Blood
The average human being has more that 10 pints of blood in the body. 55% of the blood is made up of plasma constituting the fluid part of the blood . The cells and platelets that are present in our blood make up the other 45%
Plasma—55% Red blood cells Platelets White blood cells 45%
All blood cells are produced in the bone marrow.
Bone Marrow looks like a network of tiny little connected caves...similar to a honeycomb.
Inside, are some parent cells called Stem Cells .
A Stem Cell can divide itself and produce a twin.
This process of cell division is called mitosis . Through mitosis , the Stem Cell can keep on creating more and more Stem Cells just like itself.
Stem Cell can actually "differentiate" into red cells , white cells and platelets!
Hemopoetic Stem Cells Genetically treated stem cells, when reintroduced into the patient's body are expected to naturally travel through the blood stream to the bone marrow. Re-established there, these DNA treated and/or corrected stem cells are anticipated to produce millions of blood cell offspring with the desired effect
White Blood Cells (WBC) Leukocytes
White blood cells are an important part the immune system . Their role is to defend the body against infection by pathogens .
White blood cells are capable of passing through the walls of capillaries in order to attack, kill and consume intruder pathogens!
Types of leukocytes
lymphocyte T cells
lymphocyte B cells
Granulocytes contain little granules in their cytoplasm , or cell matter .
neutrophils , basophils and eosinophils
Granulocytes recognize signals that enemy germs send out when they invade the body
Monocytes and lymphocytes do not contain any granules .
granulocytes detect an enemy germ , they and the monocytes find it and eat it (phagocytosis )
monocyte examines the bits of protein the germ was made of to see how it was put together
monocyte calls on the lymphocyte T cell (or Helper T cell ) which learns to recognize what the germ looks like.
White Blood Cells (WBC) Leukocytes
The lymphocyte T cell then engages the help of the lymphocyte B cell which makes a special weapon called an antibody to use against the germ .
lymphocyte B cell produces copy after copy of these antibodies
When the antibody finds its target, the germ is stunned, wounded and killed.
Then the granulocyte and monocyte move in to finish it off
There are between 7,000 to 25,000 white cells in a single drop of blood
White Blood Cells (WBC) Leukocytes
White Blood Cells (WBC) Leukocytes Summary
help prevent bleeding and make blood clot when a blood vessel is broken
platelets look round and smooth , but when they get busy plugging up cuts and wounds they become kind of spiky and ragged around the edges.
When an injury occurs to a blood vessel wall , the platelets respond by literally throwing themselves over the cut to form a temporary plug within minutes slowing the loss of blood
platelets also attract a protein found in plasma called fibrin and use it to form a dense netting that traps red blood cells and quickly becomes a clot
Blood clotting Blood clots (fibrin clots) are the clumps that results when blood coagulates.
Red blood cells (erythrocytes, RBC))
T he scientific name for red blood cells is Erythrocytes . They are formed in the bone marrow and are created by a Stem Cell .
Red cells are the most numerous of all blood cells in the blood. They are produced at a rate of 4-5 billion every hour in an adult human!
When a red cell matures, it ejects its nucleus before entering the bloodstream .
It ends up looking a little like a doughnut, but without a hole in the middle. Red cells are 7-8 microns in diameter. Yet, they are the heaviest particles in the blood.
Red blood cells contain hemoglobin , a protein that carries oxygen . RBCs The role of red cells is to absorb oxygen through the little alveoli in your lungs and deliver it to all the muscles , tissues and organs in your body. To do this, they travel through large arteries and tiny capillaries . Sometimes the capillaries are so small, the red cells have to squeeze and bend themselves in half to get through in order to release their load of oxygen!
Erythrocytes (RBCs) But that's only half the trip! Because after they deliver the oxygen , the red blood cells pick up a CO 2 , a waste product . Then they make the return trip back to the lungs through the veins where the CO2 can finally be released every time you breathe out! Then, the red blood cells start the trip all over again. If you're wondering how long it takes to accomplish a round-trip ... it takes, on average... only 30-45 seconds! Red blood cells have a life span of about 120 days . Then they die and are removed from circulation by the spleen .
The blood cells are mixed together in a slightly yellowish liquid called Plasma .
Plasma is mostly made up of water , but also contains proteins , sugar and salt .
In addition to carrying blood cells throughout your body, plasma also carries hormones , nutrients and chemicals , such as iron .
Plasma has the important function of maintaining the pH of the blood at approximately 7.4.
Cheat Sheet -cytosis slight increase in the number of cells -emia abnormal increase in the number of cells -penia abnormal decrease in the number of cells
Slight increase in the number of ALL blood cells
Decrease in the number of platelets (thrombocytes)
abnormal, excessive, uncontrollable increase in the number of white blood cells
Abnormal increase in the number of RBC
Abnormal decrease in the number of RBC
Slight increase in the number of WBC
Slight increase in the number of thrombocytes (platelets)
Slight increase in the number of RBC
Slight increase in the number of agranulocytes (a type of WBC)
Abnormal decrease in the number of WBC
Laboratory Tests Type Description complete blood count (CBC) of number of erythrocytes, leukocytes, and thrombocytes in blood, also measures percent of red blood cells and amount of hemoglobin hematocrit (HCT) percentage of erythrocytes in volume of blood hemoglobin (Hb; Hgb) measures the amount of hemo-globin in a sample of blood lipid profile determination of levels of blood lipids such as cholesterol and triglycerides
Laboratory Tests Type Description partial thromboplastin time coagulation test which (PTT) measures time for sample of blood to clot following addition of thromboplastin platelet count measures amount of platelets in sample of blood prothrombin time (PT) coagulation test which measures time for clot formation following addition of clot-forming agent
Blood types are based on specific proteins called antigens that are found on the surface of red blood cells, and antibodies found in plasma.
There are four basic blood types:
1. Type A with A antigen on the red cells and anti-B antibodies in the plasma.
2. Type B with B antigen on the red cells and anti-A antibodies in the plasma.
3. Type AB with both A and B antigens on the red cells and neither anti-A nor anti-B in the plasma.
4. Type O with no A or B antigens on the red cells and both anti-A and anti-B antibodies in the plasma.
If you are a Type A person, you do not carry antibodies against A markers. But you do have antibodies against Type B blood.
If you are a Type B person, you have antibodies against Type A cells.
If you are a Type O , you have antibodies against both Type A and B!
Distribution of blood types in the US
protein substance present in the red blood cells of most people, capable of inducing intense antigenic reactions .
The red blood cells of the 85% (later found to be 85% of the white population and a larger percentage of blacks and Asians) contains the protein and is Rh positive.
The blood of the remaining 15% lacked the factor and was typed Rh negative.
Under ordinary circumstances, the presence or lack of the Rh factor has no bearing on life or health. It is only when the two blood types are mingled in an Rh-negative individual that the difficulty arises, since the Rh factor acts as an antigen in Rh-negative persons, causing the production of antibodies.
Destruction of the cells (hemolysis) eventually results
Sickle cell anemia
Red blood cells are sickle shaped rather than biconcave, body's immune system recognizes them as abnormal and destroys them by phagocytosis , reducing their life span
Phagocyte-- Any cell that ingests and destroys foreign particles
Can occur when mother is Rh- and father is Rh+
Blood cells from the unborn baby (fetal red blood cells) can cross over into the mother's bloodstream , especially at delivery.
If the blood types of mother and baby are incompatible, the mother's immune system manufactures antibodies against the baby's blood.
Usually, this incompatibility is not a factor in a first pregnancy
In later pregnancies,the mother's antibodies will attack the fetal red blood cells . If this happens, the fetus or baby can suffer severe health effects and may die.
The use of RhoGam has greatly reduced the incidence of RH hemolytic disease *28wks, and after birth *destroys any red blood cells from baby that have entered the blood
Intrauterine transfusion for erythroblastosis fetalis Transfusions are performed using type O, Rh negative blood After the fetal blood type is determined, it may occasionally be possible to use maternal blood Perinatal survival rates for severely isoimmunized fetuses following intravascular transfusion are reported in excess of 85%. infant's blood is withdrawn and the fresh, pre-warmed blood or plasma is injected.
An abnormal increase in blood cells ( primarily red blood cells ) resulting from increased blood cell production by the bone marrow.
Causes a slowing of circulation and thickening of blood
It is a rare disorder, occurring more frequently in men, and is rarely seen in those under 40 years old
Percentage of RBCs in the blood may become so high that the blood ceases to flow in some smaller vessels and capillaries . In this photomicrograph, the RBCs are densely packed together
genetic disorder characterized by dysfunction of blood-clotting mechanism
Bleeding into joints and associated pain and swelling
Gastrointestinal tract and urinary tract hemorrhage
Blood in the urine or stool
Prolonged bleeding from cuts, tooth extraction, and surgery
Tx—coagulants-- Replace missing clotting factors to aid in clotting process-
Bone marrow biopsy, bone marrow aspiration A small amount of bone marrow is removed during a bone marrow aspiration. The procedure is uncomfortable, but can be tolerated by both children and adults. The marrow can be studied to determine the cause of anemia, the presence of leukemia or other malignancy
Bone marrow transplant Autologous (vs allogenic) bone marrow transplant
Human embryonic stem cells
Human embryonic Stem Cells The researchers' next major goal is to figure out how to direct the stem cells to become whatever kind of cell they want.
Pharmaceutical Agents Agent Description antithrombotic therapy, anticoagulants (“blood thinners”) prevents clot formation by interfering with clotting mechanism E.g—baby aspirin, Coumadin, heparin thrombolytic agents (strokes, Mis) eliminates clot by breaking down fibrin (urokinase, streptokinase, TPA_
The Lymphatic System
Contain lymph-- clear-to-white fluid made of chyle (fluid from the intestines after digestion which contains proteins and fats ), some red blood cells, and many white blood cells, especially lymphocytes .
Lymphocytes are the cells that attack bacteria in the blood.
lymphatic system filters fluid from around cells
Major function of lymph is to transport WBC to body to fight infection
Lymph nodes lymph nodes must be able to "dump" their phagocytes (infection-fighting leukocytes store there) quickly into the general blood stream Lymph nodes act as a filtration system — Phagocytes engulf and destroy bacteria in the lymph—a process known as phagocytosis
Body Areas Served by the Two Lymph Ducts
Immune System (Slide 1 of 4)
Red bone marrow where B-lymphocytes (B cells) mature
Thymus gland where T-lymphocytes (T cells) mature, spleen is the major organ in which antibodies are synthesized and released into circulation.
Spleen which removes foreign agents from blood
Lymph nodes which remove foreign agents from lymph
Immune System (Slide 2 of 4)
Nonspecific Defense System (Protects body against infection in generalized way)
Skin protects body organs against invasion from foreign matter
Mucous membrane linings of digestive, respiratory, urinary, and reproductive tracts
Phagocytes are attracted to infected region to destroy invaders by phagocytosis
Natural killer cells destroy cancerous cells or virus-infected cells
Immune System (Slide 3 of 4)
Nonspecific Defense System (continued)
Interferon is released by cells that are infected by a virus, signals nearby healthy cells to resist viral replication
Assists in the process of phagocytosis and acts directly, in some cases, to rupture bacteria cells
Immune System (Slide 4 of 4)
Specific Defense System (Uses WBCs that have specialized roles in fighting particular invaders)
T-lymphocytes (killer or cytotoxic) destroy infected cells directly by disturbing the cell's plasma membrane
B-lymphocytes produce proteins called antibodies which are released into body fluids to combat specific bacterial cells
How it works…
diseases in which the body's own cells instead of foreign cells are attacked by immune system
Surgical removal of the thymus
Abnormal decrease in the number of lymphocytes
Surgical removal of the spleen
Inflammation of the lymphatic vessels
Swelling of the lymph vessels due to lymphatic obstruction
Disease process of the lymph nodes
X-ray of the lymph vessels using contrast media
WBC that fights infection
Swelling of the lymph vessels due to lymphatic obstruction
Post-mastectomy Elephantiasis --lymphedema usually affecting the legs or external genitals. In tropical countries the most common cause is filariasis , infestation with certain filaria, small parasitic roundworms
Anaphylaxis acute hypersensitivity reaction to an antigen
hypersensitivity; allergie— side effects of defense system's response to an antigen
Anaphylaxis is a sudden, severe, potentially fatal, systemic allergic reaction that can involve various areas of the body (such as the skin, respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, and cardiovascular system)
Symptoms usually occur within minutes to two hours after contact with the allergy-causing substance
Individuals with asthma, eczema, or hay fever are at greater relative risk of experiencing anaphylaxis
Common causes of anaphylaxis include :
Treatment --Epi-pen ( Epinephrine ) and Benadryl
Autoimmune disease body's own cells instead of foreign cells are attacked by immune system
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
Myasthenia gravis (MG)
Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura (sensitivity to own platelets!)
Thyrotoxicosis (Graves' disease)
Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM or Type I diabetes)
Multiple sclerosis (MS)
In some autoimmune diseases, B cells mistakenly make antibodies against tissues of the body (self antigens) instead of foreign antigens. Occasionally, these autoantibodies either interfere with the normal function of the tissues or initiate destruction of the tissues.
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome AIDS
AIDS is an immunodeficiency disorder caused by a virus that destroys helper T cells and that is harbored in macrophages as well as helper (T4) T cells. The AIDS virus (HIV) splices its DNA into the DNA of the cell it infects ; the cell is thereafter directed to churn out new viruses .
Opportunistic diseases of AIDS Kaposi's sarcoma (15% AIDS pts) rare form of cancer of the lining of blood capillaries Mycobacterium avium an opportunistic infection complex infection among AIDS patients non-Hodgkin's lymphoma malignant tumor of lymphatic tissues with enlargement of lymph nodes Pneumocystis carinii parasite parasite that causes an opportunistic type of pneumonia tuberculosis common opportunistic disease among AIDS patients cytomegalovirus antibody detection of antibody which is opportunistic infection seen in AIDS patients
Rare vascular tumor
Kaposi's sarcoma is seen in 15% of AIDS patients in the United States.
frequently on the face and trunk
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
Treatment (focused on life extension and symptom reduction)
Through contaminated body fluids exchanged through close or intimate contact
No evidence transmission through casual social contact
Sexual contact, contaminated syringes and needles, contaminated blood, contaminated donor organs, infected maternal-fetal transmission