DVT Current Concepts Dr Saeed Al-Shomimi King Fahad Hospital of University Khobar – Saudi Arabia 2005
Venous Thromboembolism Stasis Activation of Coagulation Vessel Damage Virchow's Triad
Etiology
FREQUENTLY ENCOUNTERED <ul><li>Prolonged fever + recumbency </li></ul><ul><li>Lengthy major surgery </li></ul><ul><li>Orth...
ETIOLOGY Obscure Zones
<ul><li>Anesthesia   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>general anesthesia have a  5X  increased risk of DVT compared with patients rec...
<ul><li>Blood surface antigens   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Type  A  blood is associated with lower levels of antithrombin III ...
<ul><li>Cancer   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Malignancy is an important risk factor for DVT, and spontaneous DVT without an obvi...
<ul><ul><li>The relative risk for cancer is  19 times  higher for patients younger than 50 years who have had DVT than for...
<ul><li>Strokes and neurotrauma   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>common after stroke or neurological trauma.  </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
<ul><ul><li>40%  of postoperative neurosurgical patients develop DVT. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stroke patients with a si...
<ul><li>Chemotherapy   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many types of chemotherapy increase the risk of DVT and PE </li></ul></ul><ul...
<ul><li>Coagulopathy  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protein C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protein S </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anti...
<ul><li>Heart disease   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acute MI and CHF increase the likelihood of DVT and PE, independent of bed r...
<ul><li>Inflammatory bowel disease   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Patients with ulcerative colitis or Crohn disease are at increa...
<ul><li>Prior DVT   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Patients with a prior episode of DVT are  5  times more likely to develop new DV...
Autoimmune Vasculitis <ul><li>Behcet’s disease </li></ul><ul><li>Lupus antibodies </li></ul><ul><li>Anticardiolipin AB </l...
INVESTIGATIONS
LAB <ul><li>PT ,PTT , INR </li></ul><ul><li>ESR </li></ul><ul><li>D - dimer  </li></ul><ul><li>ABG </li></ul><ul><li>Prote...
RADIOLOGY <ul><li>ULTRASOUND (Duplex) </li></ul><ul><li>VENOGRAPHY (rarely used) </li></ul><ul><li>MRV </li></ul><ul><li>v...
 
 
 
MANAGEMENT
GENERAL MEASURES <ul><li>1- Complete bed rest </li></ul><ul><li>2-The affected extremity should be elevated above the leve...
<ul><li>Anticoagulants </li></ul><ul><li>Thrombolytics </li></ul><ul><li>Prophylaxis </li></ul>
I-Anticoagulants <ul><li>Anticoagulants prevent thrombous propagation & allow endogenous lytic system to operate. </li></u...
Contraindication <ul><li>1-recent surgery, especially to eye or CNS. </li></ul><ul><li>2-Pre_existing hemorrhagic state  <...
1-Heparin <ul><li>Mech. Of action </li></ul><ul><li>Standard Heparin (SH) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>produces its anticoagulant...
Advantages of LMWH over SH <ul><li>1-LMWH has a high bioavailability after SC injection so its given either as a fixed or ...
<ul><li>3-LMWH is reported to be as effective as or better than SH in preventing extension or recurrence of venous thrombo...
Route of Admn. & Dose <ul><li>Heparin…(IV) as an initial bolus of 7500 to 10,000 IU followed by a continuous infusion of 1...
<ul><li>S/E…in less than 5% of patients ,heparin therapy may cause thrombocytopenia. Infrequently ,these pt develop arteri...
2-WARFARIN <ul><li>Mech. Of action .. </li></ul><ul><li>Warfarin inhibit vit K-dependant carboxylation of factors II ,VII ...
<ul><li>Why to overlap Heparin ttt with oral anticoagulant therapy?? </li></ul><ul><li>This because of the delayed effect ...
Duration of anti-coagulant therapy <ul><li>1 st  attack  3 M </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd  attack  1 year </li></ul><ul><li>3 rd...
BUT…What if treatment with anti-coagulant is contraindicated??? <ul><li>IVC filter. </li></ul>
II-Thrombolytics <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Streptokinase </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Urokinase </l...
<ul><li>There is no evidence that thrombolytic therapy is more effective than anti-coagulants in preventing pulmonary embo...
III-Prophylaxis <ul><li>ALL PATIENTS ADMITTED TO HOSPITAL SHOULD BE ASSESSED FOR THEIR RISK OF VENOUS THROMBOSIS . </li></ul>
<ul><li>Mechanical: </li></ul><ul><li>- early mobilization  </li></ul><ul><li>-leg raising. </li></ul><ul><li>- graduated ...
<ul><li>Hip or knee surgery  </li></ul><ul><li>Major abdominal or pelvic surgery for malignancy or with history of DVT </l...
<0.1%   <1%   <10%   Low-risk   0.1-1%   1-10%   10-40%   Moderate-risk   >1% 10-30%   40-80%   High-risk   Frequency of  ...
Anti-coagulants <ul><li>Heparin(5000 units 2h prior to surgery then 5000 units every 8-12h post operatively) reduces the r...
<ul><li>Warfarin in a dose that yields apt equivalent to an INR of 2-3 is effective in preventing DVT ass. With bone fract...
BUT..WHAT IF THE ANTICOAGULANT IS C/I??? <ul><li>External pneumatic compression  devices applied to the legs are used to p...
What Is New ?
PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF VENOUS THROMBOEMBOLISM   International Consensus Statement (Guidelines according to scientific...
<ul><li>64 international vascular experts  </li></ul><ul><li>52 major centers worldwide </li></ul><ul><li>DVT Registry 200...
 
 
 
GENERAL AND VASCULAR SURGICAL PATIENTS
THE RISK <ul><li>Known clinical risk factors allow for classification of patients into high, medium or low risk of develop...
<ul><li>The incidence of postoperative asymptomatic DVT is of the order of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>18% in patients having ab...
<ul><li>Obesity is an independent risk factor for sudden post-operative fatal PE. </li></ul><ul><li>Bariatric surgery is a...
Prophylaxis <ul><li>low dose unfractionated heparin   (LDUH) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(5000 IU 8 or 12 hourly subcutaneously)...
<ul><li>dextran   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The preventive effect of dextran on fatal PE has been updated and verified. It app...
<ul><li>Graduated elastic compression  (GEC)  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>stockings reduce the incidence of asymptomatic DVT by ...
<ul><li>Aspirin   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reduces DVT by 30% and PE by 50% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Combined modalities. </li>...
Recommendations <ul><li>Low-risk patients   </li></ul><ul><li>( without risk factors undergoing minor surgery. ) </li></ul...
<ul><li>Moderate-risk patients </li></ul><ul><li>( over the age of 40 years undergoing major surgery for benign disease   ...
<ul><li>High- risk patients   </li></ul><ul><li>( aged over 60 years with additional risk factors ( </li></ul><ul><ul><li>...
<ul><ul><li>Laparoscopic surgery for major prolonged procedures will reduce venous flow in the legs and activate blood coa...
BURNS
THE RISK <ul><li>The incidence of DVT using routine screening with duplex scanning in the absence of prophylaxis varies be...
Recommendations <ul><li>Drug: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LMWH  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Initiation:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>as soo...
CANCER PATIENTS
THE RISK <ul><li>The risk of thromboembolic disease varies by type of malignancy   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>120 per 10,000 pa...
<ul><li>patients receiving chemotherapy appear to have a therapy-associated increased rate of VTE   </li></ul><ul><li>tumo...
PROPHLAXIS <ul><li>Surgical patients </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LDUH reduces the risk of DVT and fatal PE in patients with mali...
<ul><li>Medical cancer patients </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LMWH is effective for preventing thromboembolic disease associated w...
<ul><li>Patients receiving radiotherapy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Although patients who receive radiotherapy have a higher fre...
<ul><li>with central venous catheters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cancer patients with central venous catheters have a high freq...
<ul><ul><li>Warfarin (1mg per day) has been shown to be effective in reducing all venographic thrombosis from 37% to 9.55 ...
Recommendations <ul><li>Surgical: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LDUH (5000 IU 8-hourly commenced prior to operation)   </li></ul><...
<ul><li>For patients at high risk for development of thromboembolic disease in the post-discharge period   </li></ul><ul><...
<ul><li>In ambulant non-surgical cancer patients, data are available only for those with advanced breast cancer receiving ...
<ul><li>For cancer patients hospitalised with acute medical illness, thromboprophylaxis should be based on the risk for VT...
<ul><li>For cancer patients with central venous catheters, routine use of thromboprophylaxis to prevent central venous cat...
MULTIPLE TRAUMA
THE RISK <ul><li>The incidence of DVT in patients who have sustained major trauma is in excess of 50%  </li></ul><ul><li>P...
Recommendations <ul><li>LMWH  starting as soon as bleeding risk is acceptable  </li></ul><ul><li>or  IPC  in the presence ...
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DVT Current Concept

  1. 1. DVT Current Concepts Dr Saeed Al-Shomimi King Fahad Hospital of University Khobar – Saudi Arabia 2005
  2. 2. Venous Thromboembolism Stasis Activation of Coagulation Vessel Damage Virchow's Triad
  3. 3. Etiology
  4. 4. FREQUENTLY ENCOUNTERED <ul><li>Prolonged fever + recumbency </li></ul><ul><li>Lengthy major surgery </li></ul><ul><li>Orthopaedic / Urologic </li></ul><ul><li>Massive trauma </li></ul><ul><li>Pregnancy </li></ul><ul><li>Long standing v.vs </li></ul><ul><li>hepatitis </li></ul>
  5. 5. ETIOLOGY Obscure Zones
  6. 6. <ul><li>Anesthesia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>general anesthesia have a 5X increased risk of DVT compared with patients receiving epidural anesthesia for the same surgical procedure. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Blood surface antigens </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Type A blood is associated with lower levels of antithrombin III and higher levels of factor VIII than type O blood. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women of reproductive age with type A blood are 4 times as likely to develop DVT. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This association of risk with blood type A does not extend to older men or to women past reproductive age </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Cancer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Malignancy is an important risk factor for DVT, and spontaneous DVT without an obvious cause is an important marker for possible occult malignancy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 38% of cases of concomitant cancer and DVT, the DVT is detected first. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><ul><li>The relative risk for cancer is 19 times higher for patients younger than 50 years who have had DVT than for those without a history of DVT. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>16% of patients with angiographically proven PE are diagnosed with cancer within 2 years. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Strokes and neurotrauma </li></ul><ul><ul><li>common after stroke or neurological trauma. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Without prophylaxis, half the patients develop acute DVT within 5 days following a stroke. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Head trauma may cause disseminated intravascular coagulation, and DVT. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><ul><li>40% of postoperative neurosurgical patients develop DVT. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stroke patients with a single paretic leg develop DVT in 60% of the paralyzed legs but in only 7% of the nonparalyzed ones. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Chemotherapy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many types of chemotherapy increase the risk of DVT and PE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>↓ the levels of circulating anticoagulants such as antithrombin III or protein C or S </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>↑ procoagulants such as von Willebrand factor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>depress fibrinolytic activity . </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Coagulopathy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protein C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protein S </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Antithrombin III </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>15% of the cases of DVT </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Heart disease </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acute MI and CHF increase the likelihood of DVT and PE, independent of bed rest or immobilization. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Patients with acute MI who are not receiving anticoagulation have a 26-38% rate of DVT. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Inflammatory bowel disease </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Patients with ulcerative colitis or Crohn disease are at increased risk for DVT and PE because of increased fibrinogen, factor VIII, and platelet activity and depressed levels of antithrombin III and alpha2-macroglobulin. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Prior DVT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Patients with a prior episode of DVT are 5 times more likely to develop new DVT compared with patients with no prior episodes of DVT. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prior DVT increases the risk of new postoperative DVT from 26% to 68%. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A history of prior clinically apparent PE increases the risk of new postoperative DVT to nearly 100%. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Autoimmune Vasculitis <ul><li>Behcet’s disease </li></ul><ul><li>Lupus antibodies </li></ul><ul><li>Anticardiolipin AB </li></ul><ul><li>Antiphospholipid AB </li></ul><ul><li>ASMC AB </li></ul>Especially in young with no apparent cause
  18. 18. INVESTIGATIONS
  19. 19. LAB <ul><li>PT ,PTT , INR </li></ul><ul><li>ESR </li></ul><ul><li>D - dimer </li></ul><ul><li>ABG </li></ul><ul><li>Protein C , S Antithrombin III </li></ul>
  20. 20. RADIOLOGY <ul><li>ULTRASOUND (Duplex) </li></ul><ul><li>VENOGRAPHY (rarely used) </li></ul><ul><li>MRV </li></ul><ul><li>ventilation - perfusion scanning ( for PE ) </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear venography </li></ul>
  21. 24. MANAGEMENT
  22. 25. GENERAL MEASURES <ul><li>1- Complete bed rest </li></ul><ul><li>2-The affected extremity should be elevated above the level of the heart until the oedema and tenderness subside . </li></ul>
  23. 26. <ul><li>Anticoagulants </li></ul><ul><li>Thrombolytics </li></ul><ul><li>Prophylaxis </li></ul>
  24. 27. I-Anticoagulants <ul><li>Anticoagulants prevent thrombous propagation & allow endogenous lytic system to operate. </li></ul><ul><li>Aim :prevention of pulmonary embolism , since in the early stages the thrombus maybe loose & poorly adherent to the vessel wall. </li></ul>
  25. 28. Contraindication <ul><li>1-recent surgery, especially to eye or CNS. </li></ul><ul><li>2-Pre_existing hemorrhagic state </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Liver ds </li></ul><ul><li>Renal Failure </li></ul><ul><li>Hemophilia </li></ul><ul><li>Thrombocytopenia </li></ul><ul><li>3-Pre_existing structural lesions </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Peptic Ulcer </li></ul><ul><li>4-Recent cerebral hemorrhage. </li></ul><ul><li>5-Uncontrolled HPN. </li></ul>
  26. 29. 1-Heparin <ul><li>Mech. Of action </li></ul><ul><li>Standard Heparin (SH) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>produces its anticoagulant effect by potentiating the activity of anti-thrombin which will inhibit procoagulant enzymatic activity of factors IIa ,VIIa ,IXa ,Xa ,XIa. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>LMWH </li></ul><ul><ul><li>augment anti-thrombin activity against factor Xa. </li></ul></ul>
  27. 30. Advantages of LMWH over SH <ul><li>1-LMWH has a high bioavailability after SC injection so its given either as a fixed or weight-related dose .Therefore ,The plasma LMWH level does not need to be measured. </li></ul><ul><li>2-The incidence of thrombocytopenia is less with LMWH than SH. </li></ul>
  28. 31. <ul><li>3-LMWH is reported to be as effective as or better than SH in preventing extension or recurrence of venous thrombosis. </li></ul>
  29. 32. Route of Admn. & Dose <ul><li>Heparin…(IV) as an initial bolus of 7500 to 10,000 IU followed by a continuous infusion of 1000 to 1500 IU/h. </li></ul><ul><li>The rate of heparin infusion should be adjusted so that the active aPTT is approximately twice the control value. </li></ul>
  30. 33. <ul><li>S/E…in less than 5% of patients ,heparin therapy may cause thrombocytopenia. Infrequently ,these pt develop arterial thrombosis & Ischemia </li></ul>
  31. 34. 2-WARFARIN <ul><li>Mech. Of action .. </li></ul><ul><li>Warfarin inhibit vit K-dependant carboxylation of factors II ,VII ,IX ,X in the liver. </li></ul><ul><li>Warfarin is administered during the 1 st wk of treatment with heparin &maybe started as early as the 1 st day of heparin treatment if the aPTT is therapeutic. </li></ul>
  32. 35. <ul><li>Why to overlap Heparin ttt with oral anticoagulant therapy?? </li></ul><ul><li>This because of the delayed effect of warfarin. </li></ul><ul><li>SO…Overlap is important for at least 4-5 days </li></ul><ul><li>Dose of warfarin should be adjusted to maintain the thrombin time at an INR of 2-3 </li></ul>
  33. 36. Duration of anti-coagulant therapy <ul><li>1 st attack 3 M </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd attack 1 year </li></ul><ul><li>3 rd attack Life </li></ul>
  34. 37. BUT…What if treatment with anti-coagulant is contraindicated??? <ul><li>IVC filter. </li></ul>
  35. 38. II-Thrombolytics <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Streptokinase </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Urokinase </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tissue Plasminogen Activator </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  36. 39. <ul><li>There is no evidence that thrombolytic therapy is more effective than anti-coagulants in preventing pulmonary embolism!! </li></ul><ul><li>HOWEVER …early administration of thrombolytic drugs may accelerate clot lysis . </li></ul>
  37. 40. III-Prophylaxis <ul><li>ALL PATIENTS ADMITTED TO HOSPITAL SHOULD BE ASSESSED FOR THEIR RISK OF VENOUS THROMBOSIS . </li></ul>
  38. 41. <ul><li>Mechanical: </li></ul><ul><li>- early mobilization </li></ul><ul><li>-leg raising. </li></ul><ul><li>- graduated compression (TED) stocking. </li></ul><ul><li>Drugs (anti-coagulants). </li></ul>
  39. 42. <ul><li>Hip or knee surgery </li></ul><ul><li>Major abdominal or pelvic surgery for malignancy or with history of DVT </li></ul><ul><li>Major surgery in patient>40 years or with other risk factor </li></ul><ul><li>Major medical illness </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. heart failure </li></ul><ul><li>chest infection </li></ul><ul><li>malignancy </li></ul><ul><li>inflammatory bowel disease </li></ul>High risk of DVT Moderate risk of DVT
  40. 43. <0.1% <1% <10% Low-risk 0.1-1% 1-10% 10-40% Moderate-risk >1% 10-30% 40-80% High-risk Frequency of Fatal PE Frequency of Proximal Vein Thrombosis Frequency of Calf Vein Thrombosis Category
  41. 44. Anti-coagulants <ul><li>Heparin(5000 units 2h prior to surgery then 5000 units every 8-12h post operatively) reduces the risk of DVT ass. With thoracic & abdominal surgery & with prolonged bed rest. </li></ul><ul><li>LMWHs have been shown to prevent DVT in pt undergoing general or orthopedic surgery. </li></ul>
  42. 45. <ul><li>Warfarin in a dose that yields apt equivalent to an INR of 2-3 is effective in preventing DVT ass. With bone fractures & orthopedic surgery. </li></ul><ul><li>Warfarin is started the night before surgery & continued. </li></ul>
  43. 46. BUT..WHAT IF THE ANTICOAGULANT IS C/I??? <ul><li>External pneumatic compression devices applied to the legs are used to prevent DVT when even low doses of heparin or warfarin might cause serious bleeding ,as during neurosurgery or transurethral resection of the prostate </li></ul>
  44. 47. What Is New ?
  45. 48. PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF VENOUS THROMBOEMBOLISM International Consensus Statement (Guidelines according to scientific evidence) (Int. Angiol., June 2006)
  46. 49. <ul><li>64 international vascular experts </li></ul><ul><li>52 major centers worldwide </li></ul><ul><li>DVT Registry 2001 – 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Meta – analysis of 116 studies </li></ul><ul><li>Prevention and treatment policies </li></ul>International Consensus Statement Reviewed/modified
  47. 53. GENERAL AND VASCULAR SURGICAL PATIENTS
  48. 54. THE RISK <ul><li>Known clinical risk factors allow for classification of patients into high, medium or low risk of developing VTE </li></ul><ul><li>the risk continues after discharge from hospital. </li></ul><ul><li>Despite the use of intra-operative heparin or other perioperative antithrombotic substances, vascular surgical patients are at moderate risk </li></ul>
  49. 55. <ul><li>The incidence of postoperative asymptomatic DVT is of the order of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>18% in patients having abdominal vascular surgery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>15% for those having peripheral vascular reconstruction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The risk of VTE in patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery appears to be low. </li></ul>
  50. 56. <ul><li>Obesity is an independent risk factor for sudden post-operative fatal PE. </li></ul><ul><li>Bariatric surgery is associated with clinical VTE in 1.2% of cases and with fatal PE in 0.3%. </li></ul>
  51. 57. Prophylaxis <ul><li>low dose unfractionated heparin (LDUH) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(5000 IU 8 or 12 hourly subcutaneously) was found to reduce both DVT and fatal PE </li></ul></ul><ul><li>LMWH </li></ul><ul><ul><li>not only reduces the incidence of fatal PE but also the overall surgical mortality as compared to controls without prophylaxis. </li></ul></ul>
  52. 58. <ul><li>dextran </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The preventive effect of dextran on fatal PE has been updated and verified. It appears that fibrin formed in the presence of dextran is not cross-linked so that it is easily lysed by the body’s natural fibrinolytic activity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fluid overload and anaphylactoid reactions </li></ul></ul>
  53. 59. <ul><li>Graduated elastic compression (GEC) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>stockings reduce the incidence of asymptomatic DVT by approximately 50-60% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reduces the incidence of asymptomatic DVT by approximately 69% </li></ul></ul>
  54. 60. <ul><li>Aspirin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reduces DVT by 30% and PE by 50% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Combined modalities. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evidence from randomized controlled studies shows that combinations of prophylactic methods are more effective than using each method </li></ul></ul>
  55. 61. Recommendations <ul><li>Low-risk patients </li></ul><ul><li>( without risk factors undergoing minor surgery. ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GEC stockings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>early ambulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>adequate hydration </li></ul></ul>
  56. 62. <ul><li>Moderate-risk patients </li></ul><ul><li>( over the age of 40 years undergoing major surgery for benign disease ( </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LDUH 5000 units commenced pre-operatively and continued 2X -3X daily </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LMWH initiated and dosed according to manufacturers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If Bleeding Risk: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IPC with GEC compression used continuously until the patient is ambulant </li></ul></ul>
  57. 63. <ul><li>High- risk patients </li></ul><ul><li>( aged over 60 years with additional risk factors ( </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LDUH (5000 units commenced two hours before operation and continued post-operatively three times a day) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LMWH initiated and dosed according to the manufacturer’s recommendations </li></ul></ul>
  58. 64. <ul><ul><li>Laparoscopic surgery for major prolonged procedures will reduce venous flow in the legs and activate blood coagulation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prophylactic subcutaneous LDUH, LMWH, or IPC with GEC are recommended only in patients with additional risk factors </li></ul></ul>
  59. 65. BURNS
  60. 66. THE RISK <ul><li>The incidence of DVT using routine screening with duplex scanning in the absence of prophylaxis varies between 6% and 27% </li></ul><ul><li>Symptomatic VTE occurs in in 2.4% to 7.0% of patients. </li></ul>
  61. 67. Recommendations <ul><li>Drug: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LMWH </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Initiation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>as soon as it is considered safe to do so </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Duration: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>as long as the patient remains at risk </li></ul></ul>
  62. 68. CANCER PATIENTS
  63. 69. THE RISK <ul><li>The risk of thromboembolic disease varies by type of malignancy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>120 per 10,000 patients for ovarian malignancy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>117 per 10,000 for primary brain malignancy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>110 per 10,000 for pancreatic cancer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In OR the risk is 2X compared to Normal Patient </li></ul>
  64. 70. <ul><li>patients receiving chemotherapy appear to have a therapy-associated increased rate of VTE </li></ul><ul><li>tumor and stage-dependent. </li></ul><ul><li>Patients who received radiotherapy had a higher frequency of VTE within three months of therapy and surgery compared with those who did not </li></ul>
  65. 71. PROPHLAXIS <ul><li>Surgical patients </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LDUH reduces the risk of DVT and fatal PE in patients with malignancy having surgery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LMWH is at least as effective as LDUH. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continuation of LMWH for four weeks after discharge home reduces the risk of asymptomatic DVT as demonstrated by venography from 13.8% to 5.5% </li></ul></ul>
  66. 72. <ul><li>Medical cancer patients </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LMWH is effective for preventing thromboembolic disease associated with acute medical illness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in 311 patients with metastatic breast cancer receiving chemotherapy randomised to low dose warfarin (INR between 1.3 and 1.9) </li></ul></ul>
  67. 73. <ul><li>Patients receiving radiotherapy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Although patients who receive radiotherapy have a higher frequency of VTE within three months of therapy and surgery compared with those who do no </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>there are no studies on the value of routine thromboprophylaxis in those receiving radiotherapy. Such studies need to be performed </li></ul></ul>
  68. 74. <ul><li>with central venous catheters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cancer patients with central venous catheters have a high frequency for development of VTE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The use of LMWH (Dalteparin sodium 2500 units once daily) has been shown to be effective in reducing venographic thrombosis from 62% to 6% </li></ul></ul>
  69. 75. <ul><ul><li>Warfarin (1mg per day) has been shown to be effective in reducing all venographic thrombosis from 37% to 9.55 </li></ul></ul>
  70. 76. Recommendations <ul><li>Surgical: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LDUH (5000 IU 8-hourly commenced prior to operation) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LMWH </li></ul></ul>
  71. 77. <ul><li>For patients at high risk for development of thromboembolic disease in the post-discharge period </li></ul><ul><ul><li>those with large volume residual malignant disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>previous history of venous thromboembolic disease) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>prolonged thromboprophylaxis with enoxaparin 40mg once daily for up to 4 weeks after operation should be considered </li></ul>
  72. 78. <ul><li>In ambulant non-surgical cancer patients, data are available only for those with advanced breast cancer receiving chemotherapy In these patients, </li></ul><ul><li>use of vitamin K antagonists to maintain an INR of between 1.3 and 1.9 may be considered </li></ul>
  73. 79. <ul><li>For cancer patients hospitalised with acute medical illness, thromboprophylaxis should be based on the risk for VTE determined by the acute medical co-morbidity. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LMWH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LDUH should be used (5000 IU 8-hourly) </li></ul></ul>
  74. 80. <ul><li>For cancer patients with central venous catheters, routine use of thromboprophylaxis to prevent central venous catheter associated thrombosis is not recommended </li></ul>
  75. 81. MULTIPLE TRAUMA
  76. 82. THE RISK <ul><li>The incidence of DVT in patients who have sustained major trauma is in excess of 50% </li></ul><ul><li>PE is the third leading cause of death in those who survive beyond the first day </li></ul><ul><li>The risk is particularly high in patients with spinal cord injury, pelvic fracture and those needing surgery </li></ul>
  77. 83. Recommendations <ul><li>LMWH starting as soon as bleeding risk is acceptable </li></ul><ul><li>or IPC in the presence of contraindications to LMWH and continued until full ambulation. </li></ul>
  78. 84. THANK YOU
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